Jump to content

  • Log in with Facebook Log in with Twitter Log In with Google      Sign In   
  • Create Account

Welcome to BZPower!

Hi there, while we hope you enjoy browsing through the site, there's a lot more you can do if you register. The process is easy and you can use your Google, Facebook, or Twitter account to make it even faster. Some perks of joining include:
  • Create your own topics, participate in existing discussions, and vote in polls
  • Show off your creations, stories, art, music, and movies and play member and staff-run games
  • Enter contests to win free LEGO sets and other prizes, and vote to decide the winners
  • Participate in raffles, including exclusive raffles for new members, and win free LEGO sets
  • Send private messages to other members
  • Organize with other members to attend or send your MOCs to LEGO fan events all over the world
  • Much, much more!
Enjoy your visit!

In a hole in the ground there lived...



Photo

somebody help

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Mar 08 2014 · 342 views
kidding, but hey and 1 more...
bionicle  |n.cmpd.|  biological chronicle; lit. "chronicle of biology ('the all-living') [bionicle < boyanikul < boya-nai-akul, from boya "biology" (nominalized from bo-ya "to grow, live", see also bo "elemental plant-life; living, growing"), nai "all", and akul "chronicle; lit. "(that which is) seen/known" (< aku-li, from aku "sight, vision" and the adjectival particle -li)]
 
This has gone too far. ._.
 
JRRT



Photo

That was special

Posted by Tolkien , in Life, LEGO Feb 24 2014 · 174 views

I just got back from seeing The Lego Movie and...Oh childhood, I've missed you. sniff


Photo

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii, pt.3

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Feb 16 2014 · 269 views

[oh a tumblr what]

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii

: Part 3 :

 
Take a stroll through the previous posts for all the juicy, juicy previous details. For now, here’s where we’re at in the translation process:
 

mapaku ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila ahano nano atuana makuta taka

 
The bolded parts have been translated as follows:
 
The string ke-whenu-ka consists of the word whenu(a) "hidden/secret underground" modified by two particles: the basic locative particle manifesting as ke- "in/at/on" and the origin particle manifesting as -ka "from, out of". The entire complex therefore translates, roughly, to "from within (a) secret underground (place)".
 
The string ak-ila consists of an imperative (command) form of the verb il-ya (< el-ya) "to seek out", modified by the 3rd-singular object pronoun particle ak- "him/her/it". The entire complex translates to "seek out him/her/it".
 
Combined, these yield an (incomplete) meaning of “Seek out (a thing/person) originating from within a secret underground (place)”.
 
Now that you’re up to speed, for the first half of the inscription, all that’s left is mapaku and kitu. We also still need to identify the thing that ke-whenu-ka describes and the thing that must be sought out. Let’s start with kitu: because of its position between ke-whenu-ka and ak-ila, it seems reasonable to group kitu into the same syntactic/semantic unit with them, and also to take kitu as a candidate for the thing modified by ke-whenu-ka and the overt object of ak-ila. Whatever the meaning of kitu, I’d therefore expect it to incorporate some notion of “thing”, “type”, “kind”, “person”, etc., if we want to stay consistent with the previously-translated material. Unfortunately, there’s no ready-to-hand dictionary entry to help us out, and the deciphering of kitu will, therefore, be a matter of reconstruction. Here’s what I propose:
 
kitu  |n.|  individual, individuality; lit. “spirit (that is) part (of a whole)” [kitu < kī-tu, from the particle “part, piece, portion of” and tu “spirit/essence; result of process”]
 
Both of these elements, and tu, are (I think) pretty well-motivated in Matoran etymology, so I don’t feel too bad about applying them here to create a previously unattested term. Even so, tying everything together once again, we have:
 
... ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila “Seek out an individual originating from within a secret underground (place)”
 
This leaves only mapaku. A surface glance brings up possibilities using ma(t) “mastery, control”, pa “elemental stone”, and perhaps aku “sight, vision”, but no cohesive translation—partly because there are a thousand different ways we could go with this one. Let’s try a slightly different tack: returning to the actual audio from MoL. If we can rely on Nokama’s pronunciation to some extent, there may be something significant to be found within the actual spoken data. And in fact, I believe there is: In the audio, there is a distinct pause after Nokama pronounces mapaku—almost as if this term is an introductory word—and the rest of the inscription seems to occupy its own intonational unit as well. On those grounds, I will choose to analyze mapaku as something disconnected from the rest of the clause—something used, say, to indicate the start of the text. Does that get us any further? Might not seem like it, but it’s a start. After some really arbitrary reconstructive etymology, here’s the proposal:
 
mapaku  |n.|  (archaic) reader; lit. "master(y) of reading/letters" [mapaku < ma-paku, from ma(t) "mastery, control" and the stem-compound paku “reading; lit. ‘sight/vision of carvings’”. Frequently appears in inscriptions as a vocative element introducing a command or exhortation for the reader of a text]
 
And here’s the original source for paku, as reference:
 
paku |stm.cmpd|  reading; lit. "sight/vision of carvings" [paku < pe-aku, from pe “carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down” and aku “sight, vision", yielding an original sense of “to see carvings; to look at carved letters”]
 
Okay, let’s put the final nail in the coffin for this half of the inscription:
 
Mapaku ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila
“Reader, seek out an individual originating from within a secret underground (place)”
 
Whew. We’re only halfway there, but at this point we can make some comments on the relevance of this translation to the overall context of the Bionicle storyline. As hinted in the previous posts, I do indeed have an ulterior motive for following this particular path of translation: We must consider who inscribed this text on the Avohkii and why they did it. I have so far theorized that the inscription contains some kind of instructions for someone who might possess the Avohkii at a future point after its creation. We’ve already noted that the mask was made in Artakha, and that its purpose was to counteract a rebellious Brotherhood of Makuta should that ever become a reality.
 
Therefore, the Avohkii was always meant to be the catalyst for the creation of a Toa of Light, and so it makes sense that it was intended to be used on an Av-Matoran. Where did the vast majority of the Av-Matoran in the MU originally live? That’s right: in secret underground cities beneath the surface of the Southern Continent.
 
Thus, the phrase ke-whenu-ka kitu would literally be a stand-in for Av-Matoran: an individual who originates from a secret underground place. Really, the only reason I latched onto this particular avenue as a guide for the translation was because I originally translated whenua as "secret underground (place)" all those years ago. Happy coincidence, I guess. Who would’ve thought? And if all of this crazy theorizing is to be believed, the inscription seems to take on the form of a riddle. Who knows? In my own headcanon, I’ve imagined a chuckling Velika scratching these letters into the otherwise-flawless surface of the mask. But the extent of the riddle-making is yet to be seen. The other half of the inscription still needs translating!
 
Next time.


Photo

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii, pt. 2

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Feb 11 2014 · 303 views

[hey look a tumblr]

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii

: Part 2 :

 
Check out the previous post for the full lead-in. Here’s a summary: There is an inscription written on the Mask of Light. The Mask of Light film novelization provides the “text” of this inscription, while the Mask of Light film itself has a sequence of actual dialogue where the inscription is pronounced. The two versions are different, but are clearly related. Starting with the version transcribed from the film, I will attempt to arrive at a translation of the inscription that (1) works within the (mostly non-canon) version of Matoran grammar and etymology outlined extensively on this blog and (2) makes (some degree of) sense within the larger context of the Bionicle storyline.
 
In the upcoming analysis, therefore, I will be drawing heavily upon the entries found in the Matoran Dictionary (Vols. 1-8), as well as upon the various bits and pieces of Matoran grammar that I have developed in the Learning Matoran series, Lessons 1-8 (e.g., grammatical particles for nouns and verbs—locative and subject/object particles, pronouns, etc.). In addition, the analysis of the text will be informed by some theorizing about the in-universe context of the Avohkii’s creation and purpose.
 
Time to delve into the nitty-gritty details. Here’s the transcription that I arrived at in Part 1:
 

mapaku ke whenu ka kitu akila ahano nano atuana makuta taka

 
Some general thoughts: Notice that the word makuta is clearly present, and the word taka also appears. Full disclosure, once again: the taka in this transcription is a “correction” I have made from tak[?], where the final syllable was indistinct in the film. Although the version of the text from the novelization seems to have a corresponding tahkee instead (cf. makuta-tahkee), I believe that the correction to taka will be justified in the end. Another familiar term is (what I have spelled as) whenu—very close to whenua. Furthermore, in comparison with the novel-version, the term a-tua-na could contain a variation of toa; the novel-version yields an equivalent toa-nak, in fact.
 
These initial observations aside, let’s start by focusing on the first few words: ...mapaku ke whenu ka. As noted, a good place to start in the translation might be whenu, which resembles whenua. Here’s the relevant entry:
 
whenua  |n.cmpd.|  hidden/secret underground [whenua < whe-nua, from whe “underground” and nua “hidden, unseen, secret”]
 
Is this a good place to start though? Is it well-motivated if we want a translation that is as close to canon as a non-canon translation can get? In reality, that depends on the authenticity of the etymology of whenua. If I, as the translator, want to argue that whenua (or any other word encountered) is a legitimate candidate for incorporation in this translation, I have to be able to defend the etymologies that I’ve come up with. Alright, so let’s (try to) do that. Whenua is a compound of whe "underground" and nua "hidden, unseen, secret":
 
whe  |n.|  underground [whe < uw-hī, from uw “under, lower, below” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
 
Although I’ve used the postulated stem uw “under, lower, below” (variants w-, u, -a) in various other etymologies, it is probably the least well-attested of the elements at play here. There are two pieces of "evidence" that I can bring in its support, the first from the etymology for us "steed; lit. ‘under-thing’" and the second from the etymology of mangaia "under mangai". In the interest of time, I won’t go into the specifics, but suffice it to say that I believe the postulation of a stem element corresponding to uw "under, lower, below" (with variants) is reasonable. The second element, "thing, object, place" is much easier to defend, cf. my decomposition of kanohi, keahi, rahi, rahk-shi, mahi, etc.
 
nua  |adj.|  hidden, unseen, secret [etymology uncertain; Variant forms: na, nu, ny]
 
The defense of nua is more a matter of comparing the likely semantic domains of words in which (I claim) the element appears, viz. huna, nynrah, nuju, kranua, odina. My claim is that the common semantic element of these terms is in the range of "hidden, unseen, secret". The first two terms, hu-na and ny-nrah provide a certain amount of grounding for this meaning, regardless of its actual realization as na, ny (or elsewhere as nua).
 
Alright, so that’s the rationale behind whenua. Whether or not it’s reasonable is certainly up to debate, but I will continue under the assumption that it is reasonable.
 
So if we translate whenu as "hidden/secret underground", where does that leave us? It certainly gives us a direction to go in fleshing out the context of the rest of the inscription. Let’s see what else can we get from the surrounding text: Note that whenu is flanked by two monosyllables, ke and ka, that might be analyzed as separate words or grammatical particles, perhaps—the former at the very least. One correlation that quickly presented itself to me was the split-form of the basic locative particle -oki:
 
-oki  |p.|  in, on, at; during (basic locative particle) [Variant form: ki/ke...o (splitting+displacement) - FD: LM#8]
 
I won’t spend nearly as much time attempting to defend this translation choice, since there isn’t very much that can be defended: the "particles" (locative, objective, etc.) that I have introduced into Matoran etymology are, for the most part, of my own creation. However, I have found them extremely useful in deriving some rather tricky etymologies, and have been able to "retroactively" provide some evidence for them (cf. kiro, pouks for -oki).
 
Regardless, as listed in the entry, this locative particle can be split into a circumfixal variant with initial ke- and final -o. If the ke in the inscription is in fact the locative particle, that would shift the meaning of ke-whenu to “in/on/at [locative] (a) secret underground (place)”. The -o element could easily become the victim of assimilation: ke-whenua-o > ke-whenuo > ke-whenu.
 
This leaves ka. Continuing with the particle analysis, there is another locative particle that might prove to be a good candidate: the origin particle -ha (cf. arta-kha, mo-a, pek-ka, amay-a):
 
-ha  |p.|  from, out of (origin particle) [Variant forms: -ga (after /n/), -ka (after consonants), -ka/-kha/-a (after vowels) - FD: LM#8]
 
This particle manifests as -ka or -kha when it follows a vowel (beware: semi-arbitrary phonological rule!). If ka is the origin particle, this would further modify the meaning of ke-whenu-ka to “from [origin] within [locative] a secret underground (place)”, and we would have an example of two different particles modifying the same noun: ke-whenua-o-ka > ke-whenu-ka.
 
How does this tie in to a relevant translation of the inscription on the Avohkii? Let’s translate a little further. We need to identify two things: (1) some kind of action or event—a verb?—within which to orient this concept of a thing “from within a secret-underground (place)” and (2) the thing itself that originates from the secret underground location—that is, the thing that ke-whenu-ka modifies or describes. The next few words may provide some insight: ke-whenu-ka kitu akila ...
 
At first glance, there are no real distinguishing features that we can use to categorize these words. The same could be said looking back at mapaku. There are many directions that we could go here...too many, in fact. Whatever steps are taken after this, they are bound to be arbitrary and subjective to some degree. With this in mind: what follows is my own opinion to a much greater extent than the previous passages, so take it with that sizeable grain of salt:
 
To accomplish a complete and coherent translation, I will choose to draw upon my own descriptions of Matoran verbal morphology, as represented in the Learning Matoran lesson (Lesson #6, in particular). I have proposed, minimally, that verbs in Matoran may take a pronominal particle/prefix to indicate either their subject or object. One of these is the third-person singular subject-pronoun ai- “s/he/it” (which may be contracted to a-) and another is the third-person singular object pronoun akai- “him/her/it” (which may be contracted to ak-).
 
So if an a- or ak- prefix betrays a verb, we may have a candidate in akila: a-kila or ak-ila. How to decide? The answer may be somewhat straightforward: In a standard declarative sentence, it seems reasonable to assume that the verb would take a pronoun marking the subject. In a non-declarative—specifically, an imperative sentence (i.e. a command, “Throw the disk!”, “Kill the Rahi!”, etc.)—the subject (“you”) is generally implied (in human languages, at least), and so, if the verb is marked at all, it might be a reasonable for it to take a pronoun marking the object instead of the subject. Furthermore, the ending of akila does not show clear evidence of a verbal particle (e.g., -ya), so a further step would be to analyze akila as an imperative taking a third-person singular object pronoun: ak-ila.
 
On a less grammar-oriented note, I believe the decision to analyze akila as an imperative can also be supported by assumptions about the context of the Avohkii-inscription: This is something that was written on a powerful Kanohi mask, presumably (my presumption) to inform others about its nature or function. I think it’d reasonable to assume that whatever is written on the Avohkii could take the form of instructions—commands.
 
Continuing on: while imperative command-forms of verbs are generally assumed to be identical to the standard citation form (compare zya in the well-known Manas zya! “Attack the monster!”), it is no stretch to allow that imperative verb-forms could undergo minor reduction. As such, the closest candidate for a verb that would reduce to an imperative form ila might be something like il-ya. Looking at already-established (i.e. already sort-of-made-up!) verbs in the Dictionary, the following appears to be a promising option:
 
el-ya  |v.|  to seek out [From the stem el “seeking/searching; detection, sense” and the verbal particle ya. Basically synonymous with el-ma “to seek, search”]
 
If we define ak-ila in this way, the resulting meaning is “Seek out him/her/it”. Presto—we have satisfied task (1) above! We have identified an action/event—and it happens that the action/event can actually be interpreted as a command, a set of instructions. Interesting, no? Combined with the earlier ke-whenu-ka, we get the following:
 
... ke-whenu-ka ... ak-ila “Seek out (a thing/person) originating from within a secret underground (place)”
 
It strikes me that this would be a significant thing for someone to write as instructions on a Kanohi that was meant for a particular type of Matoran—a type of Matoran that just so happens to originate from a very particular place within the MU…Hmm. I promise I’ll stop being so vague once we get a little farther along, though it may be obvious to you by now what direction I’m taking. We’ll see...
 
Next time.


Photo

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii, pt. 1

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Movies, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 29 2013 · 568 views

[also hey look a tumblr]

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii

: Part 1 :

 
It has come to my attention that the novelization of the Mask of Light film includes the following passage:

 

mapaku una-kanokee wehnua-hakeeta ah-keelahe hanoni rahun-ahk toa-nak panokeeta makuta-tahkee ohnah-koo

 
This is supposed to be Nokama’s reading of the inscription found on the Avohkii. Interesting, no? Even if the novelization is only semi-canon, this could provide material for expanding our (admittedly completely made-up) knowledge of the Matoran language. Where to begin?
 
I began by seeking out the scene from the film itself where Nokama translates the inscription. I remember watching this years ago and hearing her utter some gibberish, but it never occurred to me that it might have been meaningful gibberish. Unfortunately for linguists attempting to reconstruct Matoran, the comparison of the film and the text from the novelization raises some problems. The bad news: The passages aren’t completely identical. The film-version is definitely truncated. The good news: While the film-version is shorter, it actually shares many elements with the novel-version. Both of these passages clearly come from the same source, and it appears that the film-version may be a pared-down form of the version presented in the book.
 
So which one do we use? Maybe we can use both. First off, however, we need a transcription of the passage from the film. Here’s mine:

 

ma'paku <break> [??] ke'wenuka'kit[?] <break> 'akila <break> [?]'hano <break> 'nano <break> 'atuana <break> ma'kuta'tak[?]

 
Notes:
- ' indicates stress on the following syllable. This won’t play a huge role, but it does help in determining some of the word breaks.
- <break> indicates a brief pause, which I take to indicate a word-break in most cases.
- ? in brackets [?] indicates an indistinct sound. The first [??] indicates that there may have been something within the break, but it was indecipherable.
 
If we compare this transcription with the text from the novelization, we can further refine the analysis to include the more well-motivated word-breaks:

 

mapaku [?]ke wenu-kakit[?] akila [?]hano nano atuana makuta tak[?]

 
I’ve put a dash between wenu and kakit[?] based on the orthography of the novel-version (wehnua-hakeeta). Likewise, for now I’ve kept [?]ke separate from wenu based on ...kanokee wehnua...
 
[Real world intrusion here—this strikes me as very Maori, and I would not be surprised if we were dealing with a non-phonetic version of Maori text in the novelization, with the actress who voiced Nokama in the film just reading it off the script phonetically (hence the extreme reduction). That doesn’t work for everything, of course, since the novel-version includes words that don’t seem likely to be completely lost through pure phonological reduction: rahun-akh, panokeeta, etc.]
 
Anyways, now that we’ve compared both versions a bit, the next question is: Which one is canon? As far as I know, the novelization is only semi-canon, while the film is full-canon, at least when it comes to events. It would be easy to just drop the novel-version, but then we’d lose a significant piece of potential data. Ideally, we should be able to come up with an analysis that accounts for and is informed by both.
 
So here’s the plan: I will start with the film-version, taking it at face value, rather than as a truncation of the “full” version in the novelization. If we can come up with a bare-bones translation for that, the translation of the novel-version should come easily. With that in mind, I’ll revise the transcription from the film:

 

mapaku ke whenu ka kitu akila ahano nano atuana makuta taka

 
Full disclosure: In anticipation of the final analysis below, I’ve filled in the [?]-gaps from the original in a way that I think is plausible (kit[?] > kitu, [?]hano > ahano, tak[?] > taka). I’ve also modified the spelling slightly (wenu > whenu). There is definitely some potential for error here, and there will be a few more modifications before we’re finished, but this should work for now.

Next step: What could this possibly mean? We never get a straightforward translation. Here’s what Nokama says after translating the passage (taken directly from MoL): “This is the great Kanohi Mask of Light. A mask to be worn by a seventh Toa...A Toa of Light.”
 
That’s pretty much it. Main points: The inscription may identify the mask as the Mask of Light, but then again, it may not, since the Turaga already knew what it was—they were the ones who hid it, after all. Likewise, the fact that it can only be worn by a “Seventh Toa” wouldn’t make a whole lot of sense in the inscription, since a seventh Toa isn’t all that special—there were hundreds (more on that later!). I think it’s likely that most of the dialogue related to the inscription was, in fact, theatrics. The Turaga simply revealed to the Matoran that the mask was the MoL and that there would be a “seventh” Toa—all of which the Turaga knew beforehand.
 
Instead, in attempting to translate this inscription, it may be more useful to look at the origins of the MoL itself. Who wrote this inscription and why? The MoL was made on Artakha, and it was created for the specific purpose of combatting the Brotherhood of Makuta should they ever leave the straight and narrow. Artakha himself may have been the one to write the inscription, but regardless, the mask had a purpose from the beginning, and it would make sense for the inscription to pertain to that purpose: If the Makuta ever go bad, take this mask and find an Av-Matoran. I think it makes sense, at least! But we won’t know until we’ve got a translation, will we? This post has set the stage for just such an endeavor...
 
Next time.

 


Photo

Dear all

Posted by Tolkien , in Matoran Language, Life, Blog-related, BZPower Nov 25 2013 · 382 views

You people have brought many a smile to my face the past few days. After the time invested in the Matoran Dictionary project over the last several years, the sudden boost in exposure and overall positive response—both on BZP (thx news!) and off—means a lot. I’m glad to see so many people delving into it and having fun. In the end, that was the impetus for this project: my own personal enjoyment and enjoyment for other members of the Bionicle fandom. It’s all very satisfying. Heartfelt thanks.
 
JRRT


Photo

A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume VIII

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 17 2013 · 1,336 views
the end

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME VIII :: V-Z

 
-V-
 
 |stm.|  1. (abstract) time; 2. timeline, progression, advance, headway [Variant forms: (ā > ō / __#), vah-]
vahi  |n.|  (Kanohi) lit. “time-thing” [vahi < vā-hī, from “(abstract) time” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
vahki  |n.|  judge, law-keeper; lit. “measurer of limits” [vahki < fā-hiki, from fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction; roof/ceiling, sky” and hik “measurement, extent” (see entry) - FD: MN#3]
vakama  |n.cmpd.|  (the) future; lit. “movement of time” [vakama < vā-kama, from “time” and ka-ma “to move”]
vako  |n.|  species of Rahi-bull; lit. “part of stampede/charge” [vako < va-kī-ō, from “time; timeline, progression, advance, headway”, the particle “part, piece, portion of” and the nounal particle ō. The term is applied in reference to the behavior of vako herds]
valma  |vn.|  awaiting; lit. “seeking (a particular) time” [valma < vā-elma, from “time” and el-ma “to seek, search”]
valmai  |n.|  (archaic) place of awaiting; cursed place [valmai < valma-hī, from valma “awaiting” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
vamprah  |n.cmpd.|  always feeding/devouring; lit. “continuously made strong/satiated thing” [vamprah < vamu-pra-hī, from vamu “always, continuously”, the stem pra “strengthened, made strong” (variant of par, see entry), and the particle “thing, object, place”]
vamu  |adv.|  always, continuously [vamu < vā-amu, an adverb grammaticalized from the nounal complex vā-amu, from “time; progression, advance” and the particle amu “through, by (transitional-instrumental)”]
varian  |n.|  1. time-struggler; lit. “one who strives against time”; 2. prisoner; lit. “one who strives against bonds/limits” [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology is varian < vā-ari-ān, from “time”, ari “striving, struggling; climbing” (variant of , see entry), and ān “being, individual”; another proposed etymology is varian < fā-ari-ān, from fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction; roof/ceiling”, ari “striving, struggling; climbing” (variant of see entry), and ān “being, individual”]
vatuka  |n.|  (Rahi-) limited will-power [vatuka < fa-atu-ka, from fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction; roof/ceiling”, atu “mind, will”, and ka “power, force, ability”. Applied to the elemental vatuka rock-creatures, in reference to their apparently half-sentient nature]
veli  1.  |vn./adj.| (archaic) awaiting, abiding; 2. |n.| (modern) riddle, secret knowledge [veli < vel-ī, from vel-, a contraction of earlier valma “awaiting” (vel- < vā-el- < vā-el-ma) and the nounal particle ī]
velika  |n.cmpd.|  1. powerful abiding/awaiting one; 2. riddler, keeper of secret knowledge [velika < veli-ka, from veli “awaiting, abiding; riddle, secret knowledge” and ka “power(ful), force, ability”]
vezo  |n./adj.|  double, twofold [etymology uncertain]
vezok  |n.|  duplicity, treachery; lit. “very two-faced” [vezok < vezo-ak, from vezo “double, twofold” and the intensive particle -ak]
vezon  |n.|  double, twin, doppleganger [vezon < vezo-ān, from vezo “double, twofold” and  ān “being, individual”]
vhiso  |n.|  scholar; lit. “desiring subtle-things/facts” [vhiso < fi-hī-sā, from fi “subtle, fine, cunning; web”, the particle “thing, object, place”, and the primeval stem “hungering, desiring”]
vhisola  |n.cmpd.|  excellent scholar [vhisola < vhiso-la, from vhiso “scholar” and the modifying particle -la “good, excellent”]
vika  |n.cmpd.|  cunning power/ability [vika < fi-ka, from the stem fi “subtle, fine, cunning; web” and ka “power, force, ability”. Variant form: vica]
vikan  |n.cmpd.|  one with cunning ability [vican < vika-ān, from vika “cunning power/ability” and ān “being, individual”. Variant form: vican]
vira  |n.|  1. wildly cunning; 2. sprawling web [vira < fi-ra, from fi ”subtle, fine, cunning; web” and ra “wild(ness), untamed”]
vis  |n.|  Rahi-spider; lit. “web-creature” [vis < fi-s, from fi “subtle, fine, cunning; web” and the Rahi-designation affix -s]
viso  |n.|  poison; lit. “spider-substance” [viso < vis-ō, from vis “spider” and the nounal particle ō]
visorak  |n.cmpd.|  poisonous scourge, menace [visorak < visou-rak, from visou “poisonous” and rak “extreme wildness, lawlessness, violence; menace, scourge”]
visou  |adj.|  poisonous [visou < viso-u, from viso “poison” and the adjectival particle u]
vo  |n./stm.|  elemental lightning [vo < vō, from the primeval elemental stem “elemental lightning”. Variant forms: vo-, vol (l-modified)]
vohi  |n.|  spark; discharge [vohi < vo-hī, from vo “elemental lightning” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
voho  |n.|  static, static charge [voho < vohi-ō, from vohi “spark; discharge” and the nounal particle ō]
vohon  |n.|  static/charged being [vohon < voho-ān, from voho “static, static charge” and ān “being, individual”]
vohta  |n.|  discharging/aggressive/volatile spirit [vohta < vohi-ta, from vohi “spark; discharge” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
vohtarak  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “volatile/aggressive menace” [vohtarak < vohta-rak, from vohta “discharging/aggressive/volatile spirit” and rak “menace, scourge”]
voli  |adj.|  flickering, flashing, wavering [voli < vo-li, from vo “elemental lightning” and the primeval modifying particle li]
volitak  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) stealth; lit, “flickering/wavering spirit” [volitak < voli-ta-ak, from voli “flickering, flashing, wavering”, ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”, and the intensive particle -ak]
volo  |n.|  vitality, energy (substance) [volo < vol-ō, from the l-modified elemental stem vol “elemental lightning” and the nounal particle ō]
vopo  |n.|  time-passing, age, erosion, entropy [vopo < vapo-, from “time” and “elemental stone” (with final ā > ō vowel shift), yielding a sense of “time’s effect on stone; erosion”]
voporak  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “scourge of time/entropy” [voporak < vopo-rak, from vopo “time-passing, age, erosion, entropy” and rak “menace, scourge”]
vor  |n.|  hunger, energy-draining [vor < vō-ūr, from vo “elemental lightning” and the particle ūr(u) “un-, negative, not” - FD: MN#1]
vorahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “devouring wild thing; devourer” [vorahk < vor-rahk, from vor “hunger, energy-draining” and rahk “wild/untamable thing” - FD: MN#1]
voriki  |n.cmpd.| (a) lightning bolt, shaft of lightning [voriki < vo-rī-kī, from vo “elemental lightning”, “wild, uncontrolled, violent”, and “part, piece, portion of”]
vorzakh  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “great restricting judge/law-keeper” [vorzakh < vor-zatahki-ak, from vor (< fā-oro, a compound of fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction” and oro “word, unit of communication” in imitation of boh-oro, see entry bohrok), zatahki “judge, law-keeper” (an earlier form of dahki, see entry), and the intensive particle -ak - FD: MN#3]
vo-ya  |v.|  to conduct energy, flow (along), journey [From vo “elemental lightning” and the verbal particle ya]
voya-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great journey [From voya “journey, current” (nominalized from the verbal complex vo-ya) and nui “great, significant”]
vua  |n.|  great energy; power-reservoir [vua < vo-wa, from vo “elemental lightning” and wa “wide, great, large”]
vuata  |n.|  power source; lit. “essence of great energy” [vuata < vua-ta, from vua “great energy” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
vuata-maca  |n.cmpd.|  power source and power distributor [From vuata “power source” and maca “power distributor”]
vultraz  |n.cmpd.|  bird of prey; lit. “predatory sky-wing” [vultraz < fultriazi < faol-tiri-azi, from the stem faol “sky, ceiling” (u/l-modified from fā(n)), tiri “wing, flat appendage”, and azi “violence, predatory” (variant of, see entry)]
 
-W-
 
wa  |adj./stm.|  wide, great, large
wahi  |n.|  region, place [wahi < wa-hī, from wa “wide, great, large” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
wai-  |p.|  possessive particle [wai < *uai, originally denoting an object as being possessed (by something). Variant form: -ui (see entry) - FD: MN#7]
waikiru  |n.|  (Rahi) possessing tusks [waikiru < wai-kiru, from the possessive particle wai (originally denoting possession of the object) and kiru “tusk, tooth”]
wairuha  |n.|  possessing wisdom [wairuha < wai-ruha, from the possessive particle wai (originally denoting possession of the object) and ruha “contemplation, stillness; wisdom” (variant of rua, see entry)]
whe  |n.|  underground [whe < uw-hī, from uw “under, lower, below” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
whenua  |n.cmpd.|  hidden/secret underground [whenua < whe-nua, from whe “underground” and nua “hidden, unseen, secret”]
 
-Y-
 
-ya  |p.|  verbal particle [Variant forms: i...a, a...i (splitting+displacement)]
yi  |adv./stm.|  together, combined
yi-ya  |v.|  to collect, gather, bring together [From the stem yi “together, combined” and the verbal particle ya]
 
-Z-
 
za  |n./stm.|  planning, tactic [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the set of stem-forms zī, zē, zai “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory” (see entry ). Variant form: xa]
zadakh  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “great judge/law-keeper” [zadakh < zatahki-ak, from zatahki “judge, law-keeper” (an earlier form of dahki, see entry) and the intensive particle -ak - FD: MN#3]
zahi  |n.|  plan, schematic, strategy [zahi < za-hī, za “planning, tactics” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
zakaz  |n.|  war-zone, extreme violence; lit. “violence of violence” [zakaz < zai-ak-azi, from zai “violence” (variant of , see entry), the intensive particle -ak, and azi “violence, predatory” (variant of , see entry)]
zakta  |n.|  very cunning spirit; lit. “spirit of great strategy/tactics” [zakta < za-ak-ta, from za “planning, tactic”, the intensive particle -ak, and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
zaktan  |n.|  lit. “one with a very sly/cunning spirit” [zaktan < zakta-ān, from zakta “very cunning spirit” and ān “being, individual”]
zali  |n.|  foreboding, premonition, sense of danger [zali < zai-el-ī, from zai “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory” (variant of , see entry), the stem el “seeking/searching; detection, sense”, and the nounal particle ī]
zamor  |n.|  sphere [etymology uncertain; one proposed etymology attributes the development of zamor to a rarely-attested primeval form sferu (sferu > sefur > zevor > zamor), frequently appearing as part of a compound sferu-makna. The meaning of this term is uncertain, although it is found exclusively in texts related to the Great Beings. It does not appear to be Matoran in origin]
zaria  |vn.|  retaliation; counterattacking, counter-strategy [From the verbal complex zari-ya “to retaliate, counterattack”]
zari-ya  |v.|  to retaliate, counterattack [zari-ya < za-ari-ya, from za “planning, tactics”, ari “striving, struggling; climbing” (variant of, see entry), and the verbal particle ya]
zatth  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) summoning; lit “mind/will of authority” [zatth < zata-ath, from a primeval compound za-ta (later da) “authority, order” and ath, a heavily reduced form of atu “mind, will”]
ze  |adj./stm.|  empty, emptied out, drained [Variant forms: zi, se]
zemi  |n.|  absence, excavation; lit. “increasing emptiness” [zemi < ze-mi, from ze “empty, emptied out, drained” and mi “up, upward, rising”]
zem-ya  |v.|  to excavate, empty/hollow out [zem-ya < zemi-ya, from zemi “absence, excavation” and the verbal particle ya]
 |n./stm.|  strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory [Variant forms: zai, zē, zy, xi, azi]
zia  |vn.|  planning, schematic, engineering [From the verbal complex zī-ya “to strategize”. Variant form: xia]
zivon  |n.|  creature of violent energy [zivon < zī-vo-ān, from “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory”, vo “elemental lightning; energy”, and ān “being, individual”]
zu  |adj.|  tactical [zu < za-u, from za “planning, tactics” and the adjectival particle u]
zya  |v.|  (archaic) to strategize, attack [zya < zī-ya, from “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory” and the verbal particle ya]
zyglak  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “extremely treacherous/traitorous power” [zyglak < zy-kal-ak, from zy “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory” (a variant of , see entry), the modified stem kal “power, force, ability”, and the intensive particle -ak]
 
--------------------
 
Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| - Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”
 


Photo

A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume VII

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 06 2013 · 1,310 views

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME VII :: T-U

 
-T-
 
ta  |n./stm.|  1. elemental fire; 2. spirit, being, essence; 3. courage, ability, leadership; 4. fierce, rash, brash [ta < tā, from the elemental stem “elemental fire”. Variant forms: ta-, tal (l-modified), tau (u-modified, see entry tu), tah, tō (ā > ō / __# )]
tahnok  |n.|  fire-designation Bohrok [FD: MN#2]
tahtorak  |n.cmpd.|  very fierce speaker/orator [tahtorak < tah-toro-ak, from tah (variant of ta, see entry) “elemental fire; fierce, rash, brash”, toro “speaker, orator”, and the intensive particle -ak]
tahu¹  |adj.|  fiery, flaming [etymology uncertain; possibly tahu < tah-u, from tah (variant of ta, see entry) “elemental fire” and the adjectival particle u]
tahu²  |n.|  play of flame; lit. “sport/activity of fire” [etymology uncertain; possible tahu < ta-huw, from ta “elemental fire” and the stem huw “sport, activity”]
tai  |n.|  spirit, being, essence [tai < ta-ī, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and the nounal particle ī]
taiki  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “spirit of (a) high place” [taiki < ta-ikhi, from the elemental stem ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and ikhi “high-place” (variant of inikhi, see entry)]
taipu  |n.cmpd.|  friendly spirit [taipu < tai-pu, from tai “spirit, being, essence” and pu “friend(ly), ally”]
taka  |n.|  firelight, torchlight, illumination; heat [taka < ta-ka, from ta “elemental fire” and ka “power, force, ability”, yielding a sense of “light cast by fire/torch; light that leads the way”]
takado  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “order through enlightenment/illumination” [takado < taka-dā, from taka “illumination” (see entry) and “authority, order” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]

takadox  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “greater order through enlightenment/illumination” [takadox < takado-ak-si, from takado “lit. ‘order through enlightenment/illumination’”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
takanuva  |n.cmpd.|  new illumination [takanuva < taka-nuva, from taka “illumination” (see entry) and nuva “new, original”]
takea  |n.|  king of sharks [takea < ta-kea, from ta “elemental fire; courage, ability, leadership” and kea “Rahi-shark”]
takha  |vn.|  crafting, craft [takha < ta-ha, nominalized from the verbal complex ta-ha “to heat, forge, weld; to craft (smthg); lit. make-with-fire” - FD: MN#6]
taku  |n.|  Rahi-bird; flying spirit [taku < ta-kua, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and kua “bird, flying thing” (see entry). Applied to the taku subspecies of gukko-bird]
takua  |n.cmpd.|  1. bird of fire; 2. free/independent spirit; 3. broad illumination; great illuminator [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology, encompassing meanings 1. and 2., is takua < ta-kua, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and kua “bird; free, free-flying” (see entry); another proposed etymology is takua < taka-wa, from taka “firelight, torchlight, illumination” and the stem wa “wide, great, large”]
talvi  |n.|  subtle flame [talvi < tal-fi, from the l-modified elemental stem tal “elemental fire” and fi “subtle, fine, cunning; web, silk”]
tamaru  |n.cmpd.|  imagination, dream; lit. “flight of spirit” [tamaru < ta-mairu, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and mairu “levitation, floating” (variant of miru, see entry). Variant form: tamairu]
tanma  |n.cmpd.|  soaring/uplifted spirit [tanma < ta-ān-mai, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”, ān “being, individual”, and mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry)]
tara  |n.|  wild spirit; spirit of wildness [tara < ta-ra, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and ra “wild(ness), untamed”]
tarakava  |n.cmpd.|  rapid/rushing spirit of wildness [tarakava < tara-kava, from tara “spirit of wildness” and kava “rapid, rushing, breathless”]
te  |stm.|  vessel, contained space [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the stem ti “space, area” (see entry); one proposed etymology derives both stems from the elemental stem ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” (see entry)]
tehu  |n.|  archiving; archivist [tehu < te-huw, from the stems te “vessel, contained space” and huw “activity, sport”]
tehutti  |n.cmpd.|  willful archivist [tehutti < tehu-atti, from tehu “archiving; archivist” and atti “willful” (variant of atui, see entry)]
ter  |stm./n.|  1. guidance, guiding-force; lit. “application of leadership” [ter < tēr < ta-ār, from ta “elemental fire; bravery, ability, leadership” and the particle ār “applied, application of; applied against, resistance, hindering”. Variant forms: -tar, tre, tra]
teridax  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “guide toward greater order/greater execution of the Plan” [teridax < ter-īda-ak-si, from ter “guidance, guiding-force”, the nounal complex ī-da “toward order”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si - FD: MN#6]
thok  |adj.|  extremely fierce [thok < tho-ak, from tho “fierce” (Skakdi dialectal variant of toi, see entry) and the intensive particle -ak]
thulo  |n.|  obedience; lit. “excitement (about one’s) duty” [thulo < thou-lho, from thou “red; fiery, lively” (< tou, variant of toi, see entry) and lho “duty, function, assigned purpose”]
thulox  |n.|  greater obedience [thulox < thulo-ak-si, from thulo “obedience”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
ti  |stm.|  space, area [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the stem te “vessel, contained space” (see entry); one proposed etymology derives both stems from the elemental stem ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” (see entry)]
tiki  |n.|  airspace; lit. “part of space” [tiki < ti-kī, from the stem ti “space, area” and the particle “part, piece, portion of”]
tikko  |n.|  icy wind [tikko < tiki-ko, from tiki “airspace; lit. ‘part of space’” and ko “elemental ice”]
tiri  |n.|  wing, flat appendage [etymology uncertain; possibly tiri < ti-rui, from ti “space, area”] and rui “joint”]
tiribomba  |n.cmpd.|  jungle-leaf; lit. “wing of branch/tree” [tiribomba < tiri-bomba, from tiri “wing, flat appendage” and bomba “trunk, branch, limb of plant”. Used as a term for the broad, spade-like leaves of the common gamadu tree]
tiro  |n.|  narrow canyon/ravine; lit. “narrow/bounded space” [tiro < ti-ro, from ti “space, area” and ro “line, edge, boundary” (variant of rho, see entry)]
toa  |n.|  hero, protector; lit. “spirit of protection” [toa < tau-hā, from the u-modified elemental stem tau “elemental fire; essence/spirit, result-of-process” and “protection, peace/calm, systems-normal”. Variant forms: toua, tua]
tobdu  |n.cmpd.|  iron will; lit. “will of (a) fiery being/creature” [tobdu < toubatu < tou-pi-atu, from tou “red; fiery, lively” (variant of toi, see entry), pi “agent, perpetrator; creature”, and atu “mind, will”]
tobduk  |n.|  survivor, fighter [tobduk < tobdu-ak, from tobdu “iron will” and the intensive particle -ak]
toi  |adj.|  red; fiery, lively [toi < ta-ui, from ta “elemental fire” and the adjectival particle ui. Variant forms: taui, toui, tou, tuy, tho (Skakdi variant)]
toro  |n.|  speaker, orator [toro < ta-oro, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and oro “word, unit(s) of communication”]
toudo  |n.|  energetic/eccentric spirit [toudo < tou-tā, from tou “red; fiery, lively” (variant of toi, see entry) and “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
trali  |adj.|  guided, controlled [trali < tra-li, from tra “guidance, guiding force” (variant of tre < ter) and the primeval modifying particle li]
trei  |stm.|  guiding together [trei < tre-yi, from the stem tre “guidance, guiding-force” (variant of ter, see entry) and yi “together, combined”]
tren  |n.|  guide; lit. “guide-being” [tren < tre-ān, from the stem tre “guidance, guiding-force” (variant of ter, see entry) and ān “being, individual” - FD: MN#6]
tridax  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “organizer of greater order/authority” [tridax < trei-da-ak-si, from the stem trei “guiding together”, da “order, authority”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
tryna  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) lit. “guiding together a great host” [tryna < trei-ana, from the stem trei “guiding together” and ana “group, host; many beings”. Variant forms: traina, treina]
-tu  |p.|  spirit/essence; result of process [tu < tau, from the u-modified elemental stem tau “spirit/essence; result of process” (see entry ta). Variant forms: to-, -ta, -tau]
tūli  |adj.|  animated, excited, energetic [tūli < tou-li, from tou “red; fiery, lively” (variant of toi, see entry) and the primeval modifying particle li]
tur  |n.|  fear, terror [tur < ta-ūr, from ta “elemental fire; leadership, courage” and ūr(u) “un-, negative, not”]
turaga  |n.cmpd.|  1. courageous/leading elder; 2. elder-Toa [turaga < toa-raga, from toa “hero; protector” and raga “elder”]
turahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “terrifying wild thing” [turahk < tur-rahk, from tur “fear, terror” and rahk “wild/untamable thing” - FD: MN#1]
turu-ha  |v.|  to fear, be fearful [From the stem tūr(u) “fear, terror” and the verbal particle ha]†
tuyet  |n.|  fiery will [tuyet < toui-et, from toui “red, fiery” (variant of toi, see entry) and et “mind, will” (a heavily reduced form of atu, see entry)]
 
-U-
 
ua  |pro.|  one, they (impersonal) [4th pers., subject form - FD: LM#7]†
udui  |n.|  leg; lit. “lower-limb” [udui < uw-dui, from the stem uw “under, lower, below” and dui “limb, appendage; extension”. Variant forms: odui, oduhi, oduh]†
uduno  |n.cmpd.|  south (cardinal direction) [uduno < udui-ono, from udui “leg” and ono “protodermis”. This term patterns traditionally with terms for cardinal directions in that such terms appear to be derived from parts of the body (see entries maiduno, meno, midouno). Variant form: udouno]†
uhu-ya  |v.|  to practice; imitate [From the stem uhu “practice, activity; imitation” (variant of huw “sport, activity”) and the verbal particle ya]
-ui  |p.|  possessive particle [ui < *uai, originally denoting an object that possesses something. Variant form: wai- (see entry) - FD: MN#7]†
uko  |p.|  outside, external (locative particle) [Variant form: ko...u (splitting+displacement)]
ukua  |n.|  diving-bird [ukua < uw-kua, from uw “under, lower, below” and kua “bird, flying thing” (see entry)]
(u)kuta  |n.|  lesser spirit, being of lesser rank [ukuta < uku-ta, from the particle (u)ku “middle, in the midst of” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
us  |n.|  steed; lit. “under-thing” [us < uw-s, from the stem uw “under, lower, below” and the Rahi-designation affix -s]
us-ha  |v.|  to ride [From us “steed” and the verbal particle ha]
ussa  |n.|  steed, mount, vehicle [ussa < us-ha, from the verbal complex us-ha “to ride”. Variant form: usha]
ussal  |n.|  Rahi-crab; lit. “ridden/riding-thing” [ussal < ussa-li, from ussa “steed, mount, vehicle” and the primeval modifying particle li. Variant form: ushal]
ussanui  |n.cmpd.|  great steed/vehicle [ussanui < ussa-nui, from ussa “steed, mount, vehicle” and nui “great, significant”]
uw  |adv./stm.|  under, lower, below [Variant forms: u-, ū, au]
 
----------------------
 
Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| - Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”
 


Photo

A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume VI

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 06 2013 · 1,166 views

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME VI :: R-S

 

-R-
 
ra  |adj./stm.|  1. wild, free, untamed; 2. strive, struggle; climb [Variant form: ar(a)i (verbal)]
radi  |n.|  laughter; wild, gibbering sound [radi < ra-de, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and de “elemental sound”]
radiak  |n.|  raucous sound/laughter [radiak < radi-ak, from radi “laughter; wild, gibbering sound” and the intensive particle -ak]
raga  |n./stm.|  elder, wise one; lit. “tamed, wildness-at peace” [raga < ra-ga, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and ga “elemental water; peace, calm, settledness”]
rahaga  |n.cmpd.|  1. guardian of wild(-things), beast-master; 2. wild guardians [rahaga < ra-hagah, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and hagah “guardian”]
rahi  |n.|  Rahi, wild thing, beast [rahi < ra-hī, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
rahi-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great rahi [From rahi “wild thing, beast” and nui “great, significant”]
rahk  |n.|  wild/untamable thing [rahk < ra-hī-ak, from ra “wild(ness), untamed”, the particle “thing, object, place”, and the intensive particle -ak]
rahkshi  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) wild/untamable offspring/spawn [rahkshi < rahk-shi, from rahk “wild/untamable thing” and shi “offspring, spawn” - FD: MN#1]
rak  |n./stm.|  extreme wildness, lawlessness, violence; menace, scourge [rak < ra-ak, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and the intensive particle -ak. Variant form: rakk (Skakdi dialect)]
rakauhi  |n.|  wild bird [rakauhi < ra-kau-hī, from ra “wild(ness), untamed”, kau “free-flowing, breathing; flying” and the particle “thing, object, place”. Variant forms: rakohi, rockoh]
rak-ya  |v.|  to commit crime/violence, to wrong; to murder [From the stem rak “extreme wildness, lawlessness, violence” and the verbal particle ya]†
rama  |n.|  flying Rahi-insect [rama < ra-mai, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry), yielding a sense of “flying wild-thing”. Variant forms: ramai, rami]
ranama  |n.|  predatory Rahi; lit. “mastery of many wild things” [ranama < ra-nā-ma, from ra “wild(ness), untamed”, the plural particle , and ma(t) “mastery, control”. Applied to the ranama species of Rahi-toad, referencing their fierce predatory nature]

rau  |n.|  (Kanohi-) translation, understanding [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to oro “word, unit of communication”, possibly rau < roua < ro-wa, from ro “word, unit of communication” and wa “wide, great, large; expanse”, yielding an original sense of “many words, expanse of words”]
rehi  |n.|  home, homeland [rehi < rei-hī, from rei “home, nest, safe place” and the particle “thing, object place”]
rehix  |n.|  community; lit. “greater home” [rehix < rehi-ak-si, from rehi “home, homeland”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
rei  |n./stm.|  home, nest, safe place [etymology uncertain. Variant forms: rey, rye, rī, rea]
reidak  |n.|  extremely wild/violent spirit [reidak < rei-ta-ak, from rei “wild, uncontrolled, violent” (Skakdi dialectal variant of , see entry), ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and the intensive particle -ak]
reysa  |n.|  homesickness; lit. “hunger for home” [reysa < rey-sa, from rey (variant of rei, see entry) and the stem sa “hungering; desiring”]
rho  |n./stm.|  line, edge, boundary [etymology uncertain; Variant forms: ro, rō]
rhotu  |n.|  wheel, ring, circle [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the stem rho “line, edge, boundary”, possibly rhotu < rho-tu, from rho “line, edge, boundary” and tu (< du) “extension, scope, reach; influence”]
rhotuka  |n.cmpd.|  wheel of energy [rhotuka < rhotu-ka, from rhotu “wheel, ring, circle” and ka “power, force, ability”]
rī  |adj.|  wild, uncontrolled, violent [rī < ra-ui, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and the adjectival particle ui. Variant forms: raui, rai, rei (Skakdi variant)]
ris  |n.|  bird; nesting creature; lit. “nest-spawn” [ris < rī-s, from “home, nest, safe-place” (variant of rei, see entry) and the Rahi-designation affix -s. Variant form: reas]
rōdaka  |n.cmpd.|  heir, ascendant; lit. “(on the) edge of powerful authority” [rōdaka < rō-da-ka, from “line, edge” (variant of rho, see entry), da “order, authority”, and ka “power(ful), force, ability”]
rode  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) truth, clarity, clear communication; lit. “sound of word” [rode < ro-de, from ro “word, unit of communication” (variant of oro, see entry) and de “elemental sound”]
ropo  |n.|  patience [ropo < ro-po, from ro “contemplation, stillness” (variant of rua, see entry) and po “elemental stone”, yielding a sense of “stillness of stone”]
roporak  |n.cmpd.|  patient menace; lit. “scourge of patience” [roporak < ropo-rak, from ropo “patience” and rak “menace, scourge”]
rorzakh  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “great limiting judge/law-keeper” [rorzakh < rhor-zatahki-ak, from rhor (from rho-oro, a compound of rho “line, edge, boundary” and oro “word, unit of communication” in imitation of boh-oro, see entry bohrok), zatahki “judge, law-keeper” (an earlier form of dahki, see entry), and the intensive particle -ak - FD: MN#3]
ru  |n./adj./stm.|  orientation; oriented toward; intention [etymology uncertain]
rua  |n.|  (Kanohi-) contemplation, stillness; wisdom; lit. “peaceful orientation/intention” [rua < ru-ha, from ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention” and ha “protection, peace/calm, systems-normal”. Variant forms: ruha, ro-]
rui¹  |n.|  joint; lit. “orienting thing” [rui < ru-hī, from ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention” and the particle “thing, object, place”]†
rui²  |adj.| oriented toward [rui < ru-ui, from ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention” and the adjectival particle ui]
ruki  |n.|  school-swimming Rahi-fish; lit. “part of (larger) orientation” [ruki < ru-kī, from ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention” and the particle “part, piece, portion of”]
ruru  |n.|  (Kanohi-) sensory-awareness, night-vision; lit. “orientation-of-orientation” [From an intensivizing reduplication of ru “orientation; intention”]
 
-S-
 
-s |aff.|  Rahi-designation [An affix derived from shi “offspring, spawn” (see entry)]
sa  |stm.|  hungering, desiring [sa < sā, from the stem “hungering desiring”. Variant forms: , -so (ā > ō / _#)]
san  |stm./adj.|  precise, accurate, clear [etymology uncertain]
sano  |n.|  accuracy, precision [sano < san-ō, from the stem san “precise, accurate, clear” and the nounal particle ō]
sanok  |n.|  (Kanohi-) extreme accuracy/precision [sanok < sano-ak, from sano “accuracy, precision” and the intensive particle -ak]
sanso  |adj.|  focused, obsessive; lit. “desire for precision” [sanso < san-sā, from the stem san “precise, accurate, clear” and “hungering, desiring” (older form of sa, see entry, with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
sare  |adj.|  nostalgic, wistful, sad [sare < sa-rei, from sa “hungering, desiring”, rei “home, nest, safe-place”]
sarda  |n.|  nostalgic/wistful/sad spirit [sarda < sare-ta, from sare “nostalgic, wistful, sad” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
sau  |adj.|  hungry, desirous; living, active [sau < sa-u, from sa “hungering, desiring” and the adjectival particle u. Variant form: ]
se  |n./stm.|  elemental psionics [se < sē, from the primeval stem “elemental psionics”. Variant forms: se-, ce-, sul (u/l-modified)]
sentrahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “emptying (a) being-vessel of untamable-wildness” [sentrahk < se-ān-te-rahk, from se “empty, emptied out” (variant of ze, see entry), ān “being, individual”, te “vessel, contained space”, and rahk “wild/untamable thing”]
shasa  |n.|  reserved, shy; lit. “desiring silence” [shasa < shai-sa, from shai “silence; mute, quiet” (variant of she, see entry) and sa “hungering, desiring”]
she  |n.|  silence, muteness; whisper [she < shē, from the stem shē “silence; mute, quiet”. Variant forms: sha, shai, shī]
shelek  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) complete deaf-muteness [shelek < she-leu-ak, from the stem she “silence, muteness; whisper”, the u-modified elemental stem leu “elemental air; listening/hearing/speaking”, and the intensive particle -ak]
shi  |n.|  offspring, spawn [shi < isi-hī, from isi “possibility; possible” and the particle “thing, object, place” - FD: MN#1]
shu  |adj.|  silent; whispering [shu < she-u, from she “silence, muteness; whisper” and the adjectival particle u]
sido  |n.|  commander, decision-maker; lit. “authority over possibilities” [sido < isi-dā, from isi “possible; possibility” and “authority, order” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
sidorak  |n.cmpd.|  commander of the menace/scourge [sidorak < sido-rak, from sido “commander, decision-maker” and rak “menace, scourge”]
solek  |n.cmpd.|  blazing wind [solek < su-le-ak, from su “elemental plasma; bright, blazing”, le “elemental air”, and the intensive particle -ak. Variant form: sulek]
spinax  |n.cmpd.|  great tracker/hunter [spinax < sa-pin-ak-s, from sa “hungering, desiring”, pin “subject, target”, the intensive particle -ak, and the Rahi-designation suffix -s. Variant forms: spainax, spinaks]
spiriah  |n.cmpd.|  1. (archaic) strategic experiment; 2. (modern) empty experiment; failure [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology is spiriah < zī-piriahi,“strategy, planning, scheming” and piriahi “experiment”; another proposed etymology is spiriah < zi-piriahi, from zi “empty/emptied space” and piriahi “experiment”]
su  |n./stm.|  elemental plasma [su < sū, from the primeval elemental stem “elemental plasma”. Variant form: su-]
sūko  |n.|  stasis, suspension [sūko < -ko, from “living, active” (variant of sau, see entry) and ko “elemental ice”. Variant form: sauko]
sūkorak  |n.cmpd.|  scourge of stasis/suspension [sūkorak < sūko-rak, from sūko “stasis, suspension” and rak “menace, scourge”. Variant form: saukorak]
suletu  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) psionic will, mind of psionics [suletu < sul-atu, from the u/l-modified elemental stem sul “elemental psionics” (see entry se) and atu “mind, will” - FD: NM]
suva  |n.|  shrine, gathering place [etymology uncertain; possibly related to “time”, with reference to the design-parallels between the suva-mechanisms and the common layout of the Matoran sundial]
 
--------------------
 
Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| - Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”
 






Chapter I

Posted Image


=ll=


"Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat: it was a blog-hole, and that means comfort."

=ll=

A Short Bio of the...Author?

=ll=

 

The author of this blog currently resides in the rather dry, bare, sandy climate of the southwest United States. He is a grad-student and teaching associate at his university, currently working toward a Ph.D. in rhetoric/composition and linguistics.
 

=ll=

0 user(s) viewing

0 members, 0 guests, 0 anonymous users

Recent Comments