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Treatise: Translating the Avohkii, pt. 4

Posted by Tolkien , in Language and Etymology, Matoran Language, Bionicle, Long Entries, linguistics Mar 14 2014 · 127 views

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Treatise: Translating the Avohkii

: Part 4 :

 
Whoa, hold on! It’s dangerous to go alone! First, read this, then this, then this. All done? Good – let’s get moving. Here’s the full transcription of the Avohkii-text once again:
 

mapaku ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila ahano nano atuana makuta taka

 
The bolded part of the transcription has already been translated in the previous posts. To recap:
 
Mapaku ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila ...
“Reader, seek out an individual originating from within a secret underground (place)”
 
This portion of the passage seems reasonably self-sufficient, and I have chosen to analyze it as an independent clause: it contains a verb, its arguments, and their modifiers. If we start from that assumption, it stands to reason that the rest of the passage will form its own unit/clause, separate from the first clause but presumably still related in meaning. 
 
We can start by identifying already-familiar terms in this portion of the inscription. We actually have an easier time of it than before. Makuta is pretty self-evident, as is taka. The relevant entries are as follows:
 
makuta  |n.cmpd.|  1. master of knowledge; 2. higher knowledge [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology is makuta < ma-akuta, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and akuta “knowledge”; another proposed etymology is makuta < mai-akuta, from mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry) and akuta “knowledge”]
 
taka  |n.|  firelight, torchlight, illumination; heat [taka < ta-ka, from ta “elemental fire” and ka “power, force, ability”, yielding a sense of “light cast by fire/torch; light that leads the way”]
 
Alright, now that we’ve identified some familiar terms, let’s continue with the same line of reasoning we used for the first clause: if this section of the passage is a clause in itself, we’d expect there to be a verb and some individual(s) involved in the action of the verb (subject, object, etc.).
 
How do we go about identifying the verb? Well, one aspect of Matoran syntax that hasn’t come up much yet in this discussion (but probably should) is the fact that, according to the only example of a clausal-unit that we have, it appears that verbs in Matoran stand as the final element in a sentence. The example that we have is the phrase Manas zya, translating to "Attack the monster!" The verb is zya "(to) attack", while the object is manas "monster". This is an imperative (command) clause, so technically we can only determine that verbs appear in final position in simple imperative constructions – other clause-types might be different for all we know. Then again, for all we know, the verb-final pattern might be a strict rule for independent clauses in Matoran. For what it’s worth, verb-final patterns show up in ~40% of human languages, so Matoran wouldn’t be all that strange as a non-human language. Well...let’s see where the verb-final logic leads us:
 
Based on its clause-final position, we might assume that taka is the verb. Does this make sense? Hm...taka doesn’t necessarily look like the only example of an actual verb that we have – zya "attack" – but of course morphophonological similarity isn’t a requirement, even if that’s pretty much the only thing we have to go on. It really depends on the categorial status of taka. Do we know anything about that? Possibly, yes. Taka shows up in Takanuva. Nuva means "new". It’s clearly an adjective in its other uses (Tahu Nuva, Gali Nuva, etc.). If we assume that nuva is generally an adjective, that would imply that taka is not verbal, but nounal. Then again, an argument could be made that nuva can modify nouns or verbs, or that Takanuva is an exception based on the fact that nuva appears to be morphologically incorporated into taka, rather than a syntactic modifier as in the other cases. All of these arguments are equally legitimate.
 
This is kind of a sticky situation. On one hand, we’d rather not violate the only potential syntactic rule we know of by looking elsewhere for the verb. On the other hand, it’s iffy to just define taka as a verb. How to decide?
 
Ultimately, the decision should be made based on its overall consequences. If we decide to redefine taka as a verb, that will entail making a variety of alterations to our understanding of Matoran etymology (how modifiers work, the categorial status of nouns and verbs, etc.). These are things that, to some extent, are already "established". In contrast, if we assume that Matoran is not strictly verb-final, we aren’t actually violating any established rule, since we’re simply postulating that there’s more syntactic variation than the single piece of evidence we have suggests. The second option is far more appealing to me, so I’ll run with it. Taka is not the verb – something else is.
 
Where do we go from here? Let’s look at the other candidates for verbhood: We can probably cross out makuta, since that has a pretty well-established nounal status. That leaves ahano, nano, and atuana. Previously, I’ve already hinted that I think atuana contains a variant of toa, so I’ll cross that off as well. That leaves nano and ahano. Hm...time for some more educated guesswork.
 
If Matoran is not verb-final, are there any syntactic patterns that we can observe at all? I’d rather not jump to the conclusion that Matoran word-order is completely free, since that would leave us without any direction whatsoever. Instead, we might come to the more conservative position that Matoran is verb-final in independent imperative clauses. Think about it: Manas zya is an independent imperative clause and the verb is in final position. Furthermore, I’ve also translated the first part of the Avohkii passage as an independent imperative clause, and the verb happens to be in final position there. That’s a convenient match, go figure!
 
So if we say that the verb-final syntactic pattern is restricted (at the very least) to these types of clauses, we are free to postulate a different pattern for other clause-types. Specifically, I will propose that the clause under discussion (the second half of the passage) is not independent, but is instead dependent upon (or "subordinate to") the first clause. This is because of the status of the first clause as a command or instruction: do X. If the first clause is defined in this way, what is its relationship to the second clause? It makes sense that the second clause would describe something about how/why the command of the first clause must be performed. For example, we might interpret the relation as cause-effect: do X so that Y.
 
Alright, so the second clause is subordinate. How do we apply this to the translation? Well, if Matoran is verb-final in independent imperative clauses, a simple pattern that could be used to mark dependency is to reverse the standard order, i.e. to place the verb at the beginning of the clause: verb-initial. This is actually pretty milquetoast when it comes to human languages – different syntactic patterns are used to mark dependency-status all the time, so I don’t have many qualms about postulating it for Matoran.
 
However, this does lead us to a specific conclusion with respect to choosing between candidates for the verb: ahano is the first word in the clause. If we adopt the assumption about syntactic patterns above, ahano would be the verb. This is progress! Very small progress, but progress nonetheless.
 
Even so, this post has been really wordy, and it’s getting a bit too long at this point, so for now, I’ll leave you with a recap of the translation. It’s a slow crawl, but hopefully worth it by the end:
 
Mapaku, ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila ...
“Reader, seek out an individual originating from within a secret underground (place)”
 
... ahano nano atuana makuta taka.
"(so that) VERB ... [smthg. related to Toa] Makuta light/illumination."
 
Still on the to-do list is determining a translation for ahano, as well as nano and atuana, and we also have to flesh out the relations between these elements and makuta and taka. It’s a daunting task, but I think we’ll make it.
 
Next time.


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Treatise: Translating the Avohkii, pt.3

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Feb 16 2014 · 174 views

[oh a tumblr what]

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii

: Part 3 :

 
Take a stroll through the previous posts for all the juicy, juicy previous details. For now, here’s where we’re at in the translation process:
 

mapaku ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila ahano nano atuana makuta taka

 
The bolded parts have been translated as follows:
 
The string ke-whenu-ka consists of the word whenu(a) "hidden/secret underground" modified by two particles: the basic locative particle manifesting as ke- "in/at/on" and the origin particle manifesting as -ka "from, out of". The entire complex therefore translates, roughly, to "from within (a) secret underground (place)".
 
The string ak-ila consists of an imperative (command) form of the verb il-ya (< el-ya) "to seek out", modified by the 3rd-singular object pronoun particle ak- "him/her/it". The entire complex translates to "seek out him/her/it".
 
Combined, these yield an (incomplete) meaning of “Seek out (a thing/person) originating from within a secret underground (place)”.
 
Now that you’re up to speed, for the first half of the inscription, all that’s left is mapaku and kitu. We also still need to identify the thing that ke-whenu-ka describes and the thing that must be sought out. Let’s start with kitu: because of its position between ke-whenu-ka and ak-ila, it seems reasonable to group kitu into the same syntactic/semantic unit with them, and also to take kitu as a candidate for the thing modified by ke-whenu-ka and the overt object of ak-ila. Whatever the meaning of kitu, I’d therefore expect it to incorporate some notion of “thing”, “type”, “kind”, “person”, etc., if we want to stay consistent with the previously-translated material. Unfortunately, there’s no ready-to-hand dictionary entry to help us out, and the deciphering of kitu will, therefore, be a matter of reconstruction. Here’s what I propose:
 
kitu  |n.|  individual, individuality; lit. “spirit (that is) part (of a whole)” [kitu < kī-tu, from the particle “part, piece, portion of” and tu “spirit/essence; result of process”]
 
Both of these elements, and tu, are (I think) pretty well-motivated in Matoran etymology, so I don’t feel too bad about applying them here to create a previously unattested term. Even so, tying everything together once again, we have:
 
... ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila “Seek out an individual originating from within a secret underground (place)”
 
This leaves only mapaku. A surface glance brings up possibilities using ma(t) “mastery, control”, pa “elemental stone”, and perhaps aku “sight, vision”, but no cohesive translation—partly because there are a thousand different ways we could go with this one. Let’s try a slightly different tack: returning to the actual audio from MoL. If we can rely on Nokama’s pronunciation to some extent, there may be something significant to be found within the actual spoken data. And in fact, I believe there is: In the audio, there is a distinct pause after Nokama pronounces mapaku—almost as if this term is an introductory word—and the rest of the inscription seems to occupy its own intonational unit as well. On those grounds, I will choose to analyze mapaku as something disconnected from the rest of the clause—something used, say, to indicate the start of the text. Does that get us any further? Might not seem like it, but it’s a start. After some really arbitrary reconstructive etymology, here’s the proposal:
 
mapaku  |n.|  (archaic) reader; lit. "master(y) of reading/letters" [mapaku < ma-paku, from ma(t) "mastery, control" and the stem-compound paku “reading; lit. ‘sight/vision of carvings’”. Frequently appears in inscriptions as a vocative element introducing a command or exhortation for the reader of a text]
 
And here’s the original source for paku, as reference:
 
paku |stm.cmpd|  reading; lit. "sight/vision of carvings" [paku < pe-aku, from pe “carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down” and aku “sight, vision", yielding an original sense of “to see carvings; to look at carved letters”]
 
Okay, let’s put the final nail in the coffin for this half of the inscription:
 
Mapaku ke-whenu-ka kitu ak-ila
“Reader, seek out an individual originating from within a secret underground (place)”
 
Whew. We’re only halfway there, but at this point we can make some comments on the relevance of this translation to the overall context of the Bionicle storyline. As hinted in the previous posts, I do indeed have an ulterior motive for following this particular path of translation: We must consider who inscribed this text on the Avohkii and why they did it. I have so far theorized that the inscription contains some kind of instructions for someone who might possess the Avohkii at a future point after its creation. We’ve already noted that the mask was made in Artakha, and that its purpose was to counteract a rebellious Brotherhood of Makuta should that ever become a reality.
 
Therefore, the Avohkii was always meant to be the catalyst for the creation of a Toa of Light, and so it makes sense that it was intended to be used on an Av-Matoran. Where did the vast majority of the Av-Matoran in the MU originally live? That’s right: in secret underground cities beneath the surface of the Southern Continent.
 
Thus, the phrase ke-whenu-ka kitu would literally be a stand-in for Av-Matoran: an individual who originates from a secret underground place. Really, the only reason I latched onto this particular avenue as a guide for the translation was because I originally translated whenua as "secret underground (place)" all those years ago. Happy coincidence, I guess. Who would’ve thought? And if all of this crazy theorizing is to be believed, the inscription seems to take on the form of a riddle. Who knows? In my own headcanon, I’ve imagined a chuckling Velika scratching these letters into the otherwise-flawless surface of the mask. But the extent of the riddle-making is yet to be seen. The other half of the inscription still needs translating!
 
Next time.


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Treatise: Translating the Avohkii, pt. 2

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Feb 11 2014 · 172 views

[hey look a tumblr]

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii

: Part 2 :

 
Check out the previous post for the full lead-in. Here’s a summary: There is an inscription written on the Mask of Light. The Mask of Light film novelization provides the “text” of this inscription, while the Mask of Light film itself has a sequence of actual dialogue where the inscription is pronounced. The two versions are different, but are clearly related. Starting with the version transcribed from the film, I will attempt to arrive at a translation of the inscription that (1) works within the (mostly non-canon) version of Matoran grammar and etymology outlined extensively on this blog and (2) makes (some degree of) sense within the larger context of the Bionicle storyline.
 
In the upcoming analysis, therefore, I will be drawing heavily upon the entries found in the Matoran Dictionary (Vols. 1-8), as well as upon the various bits and pieces of Matoran grammar that I have developed in the Learning Matoran series, Lessons 1-8 (e.g., grammatical particles for nouns and verbs—locative and subject/object particles, pronouns, etc.). In addition, the analysis of the text will be informed by some theorizing about the in-universe context of the Avohkii’s creation and purpose.
 
Time to delve into the nitty-gritty details. Here’s the transcription that I arrived at in Part 1:
 

mapaku ke whenu ka kitu akila ahano nano atuana makuta taka

 
Some general thoughts: Notice that the word makuta is clearly present, and the word taka also appears. Full disclosure, once again: the taka in this transcription is a “correction” I have made from tak[?], where the final syllable was indistinct in the film. Although the version of the text from the novelization seems to have a corresponding tahkee instead (cf. makuta-tahkee), I believe that the correction to taka will be justified in the end. Another familiar term is (what I have spelled as) whenu—very close to whenua. Furthermore, in comparison with the novel-version, the term a-tua-na could contain a variation of toa; the novel-version yields an equivalent toa-nak, in fact.
 
These initial observations aside, let’s start by focusing on the first few words: ...mapaku ke whenu ka. As noted, a good place to start in the translation might be whenu, which resembles whenua. Here’s the relevant entry:
 
whenua  |n.cmpd.|  hidden/secret underground [whenua < whe-nua, from whe “underground” and nua “hidden, unseen, secret”]
 
Is this a good place to start though? Is it well-motivated if we want a translation that is as close to canon as a non-canon translation can get? In reality, that depends on the authenticity of the etymology of whenua. If I, as the translator, want to argue that whenua (or any other word encountered) is a legitimate candidate for incorporation in this translation, I have to be able to defend the etymologies that I’ve come up with. Alright, so let’s (try to) do that. Whenua is a compound of whe "underground" and nua "hidden, unseen, secret":
 
whe  |n.|  underground [whe < uw-hī, from uw “under, lower, below” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
 
Although I’ve used the postulated stem uw “under, lower, below” (variants w-, u, -a) in various other etymologies, it is probably the least well-attested of the elements at play here. There are two pieces of "evidence" that I can bring in its support, the first from the etymology for us "steed; lit. ‘under-thing’" and the second from the etymology of mangaia "under mangai". In the interest of time, I won’t go into the specifics, but suffice it to say that I believe the postulation of a stem element corresponding to uw "under, lower, below" (with variants) is reasonable. The second element, "thing, object, place" is much easier to defend, cf. my decomposition of kanohi, keahi, rahi, rahk-shi, mahi, etc.
 
nua  |adj.|  hidden, unseen, secret [etymology uncertain; Variant forms: na, nu, ny]
 
The defense of nua is more a matter of comparing the likely semantic domains of words in which (I claim) the element appears, viz. huna, nynrah, nuju, kranua, odina. My claim is that the common semantic element of these terms is in the range of "hidden, unseen, secret". The first two terms, hu-na and ny-nrah provide a certain amount of grounding for this meaning, regardless of its actual realization as na, ny (or elsewhere as nua).
 
Alright, so that’s the rationale behind whenua. Whether or not it’s reasonable is certainly up to debate, but I will continue under the assumption that it is reasonable.
 
So if we translate whenu as "hidden/secret underground", where does that leave us? It certainly gives us a direction to go in fleshing out the context of the rest of the inscription. Let’s see what else can we get from the surrounding text: Note that whenu is flanked by two monosyllables, ke and ka, that might be analyzed as separate words or grammatical particles, perhaps—the former at the very least. One correlation that quickly presented itself to me was the split-form of the basic locative particle -oki:
 
-oki  |p.|  in, on, at; during (basic locative particle) [Variant form: ki/ke...o (splitting+displacement) - FD: LM#8]
 
I won’t spend nearly as much time attempting to defend this translation choice, since there isn’t very much that can be defended: the "particles" (locative, objective, etc.) that I have introduced into Matoran etymology are, for the most part, of my own creation. However, I have found them extremely useful in deriving some rather tricky etymologies, and have been able to "retroactively" provide some evidence for them (cf. kiro, pouks for -oki).
 
Regardless, as listed in the entry, this locative particle can be split into a circumfixal variant with initial ke- and final -o. If the ke in the inscription is in fact the locative particle, that would shift the meaning of ke-whenu to “in/on/at [locative] (a) secret underground (place)”. The -o element could easily become the victim of assimilation: ke-whenua-o > ke-whenuo > ke-whenu.
 
This leaves ka. Continuing with the particle analysis, there is another locative particle that might prove to be a good candidate: the origin particle -ha (cf. arta-kha, mo-a, pek-ka, amay-a):
 
-ha  |p.|  from, out of (origin particle) [Variant forms: -ga (after /n/), -ka (after consonants), -ka/-kha/-a (after vowels) - FD: LM#8]
 
This particle manifests as -ka or -kha when it follows a vowel (beware: semi-arbitrary phonological rule!). If ka is the origin particle, this would further modify the meaning of ke-whenu-ka to “from [origin] within [locative] a secret underground (place)”, and we would have an example of two different particles modifying the same noun: ke-whenua-o-ka > ke-whenu-ka.
 
How does this tie in to a relevant translation of the inscription on the Avohkii? Let’s translate a little further. We need to identify two things: (1) some kind of action or event—a verb?—within which to orient this concept of a thing “from within a secret-underground (place)” and (2) the thing itself that originates from the secret underground location—that is, the thing that ke-whenu-ka modifies or describes. The next few words may provide some insight: ke-whenu-ka kitu akila ...
 
At first glance, there are no real distinguishing features that we can use to categorize these words. The same could be said looking back at mapaku. There are many directions that we could go here...too many, in fact. Whatever steps are taken after this, they are bound to be arbitrary and subjective to some degree. With this in mind: what follows is my own opinion to a much greater extent than the previous passages, so take it with that sizeable grain of salt:
 
To accomplish a complete and coherent translation, I will choose to draw upon my own descriptions of Matoran verbal morphology, as represented in the Learning Matoran lesson (Lesson #6, in particular). I have proposed, minimally, that verbs in Matoran may take a pronominal particle/prefix to indicate either their subject or object. One of these is the third-person singular subject-pronoun ai- “s/he/it” (which may be contracted to a-) and another is the third-person singular object pronoun akai- “him/her/it” (which may be contracted to ak-).
 
So if an a- or ak- prefix betrays a verb, we may have a candidate in akila: a-kila or ak-ila. How to decide? The answer may be somewhat straightforward: In a standard declarative sentence, it seems reasonable to assume that the verb would take a pronoun marking the subject. In a non-declarative—specifically, an imperative sentence (i.e. a command, “Throw the disk!”, “Kill the Rahi!”, etc.)—the subject (“you”) is generally implied (in human languages, at least), and so, if the verb is marked at all, it might be a reasonable for it to take a pronoun marking the object instead of the subject. Furthermore, the ending of akila does not show clear evidence of a verbal particle (e.g., -ya), so a further step would be to analyze akila as an imperative taking a third-person singular object pronoun: ak-ila.
 
On a less grammar-oriented note, I believe the decision to analyze akila as an imperative can also be supported by assumptions about the context of the Avohkii-inscription: This is something that was written on a powerful Kanohi mask, presumably (my presumption) to inform others about its nature or function. I think it’d reasonable to assume that whatever is written on the Avohkii could take the form of instructions—commands.
 
Continuing on: while imperative command-forms of verbs are generally assumed to be identical to the standard citation form (compare zya in the well-known Manas zya! “Attack the monster!”), it is no stretch to allow that imperative verb-forms could undergo minor reduction. As such, the closest candidate for a verb that would reduce to an imperative form ila might be something like il-ya. Looking at already-established (i.e. already sort-of-made-up!) verbs in the Dictionary, the following appears to be a promising option:
 
el-ya  |v.|  to seek out [From the stem el “seeking/searching; detection, sense” and the verbal particle ya. Basically synonymous with el-ma “to seek, search”]
 
If we define ak-ila in this way, the resulting meaning is “Seek out him/her/it”. Presto—we have satisfied task (1) above! We have identified an action/event—and it happens that the action/event can actually be interpreted as a command, a set of instructions. Interesting, no? Combined with the earlier ke-whenu-ka, we get the following:
 
... ke-whenu-ka ... ak-ila “Seek out (a thing/person) originating from within a secret underground (place)”
 
It strikes me that this would be a significant thing for someone to write as instructions on a Kanohi that was meant for a particular type of Matoran—a type of Matoran that just so happens to originate from a very particular place within the MU…Hmm. I promise I’ll stop being so vague once we get a little farther along, though it may be obvious to you by now what direction I’m taking. We’ll see...
 
Next time.


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Treatise: Translating the Avohkii, pt. 1

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Movies, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 29 2013 · 385 views

[also hey look a tumblr]

Treatise: Translating the Avohkii

: Part 1 :

 
It has come to my attention that the novelization of the Mask of Light film includes the following passage:

 

mapaku una-kanokee wehnua-hakeeta ah-keelahe hanoni rahun-ahk toa-nak panokeeta makuta-tahkee ohnah-koo

 
This is supposed to be Nokama’s reading of the inscription found on the Avohkii. Interesting, no? Even if the novelization is only semi-canon, this could provide material for expanding our (admittedly completely made-up) knowledge of the Matoran language. Where to begin?
 
I began by seeking out the scene from the film itself where Nokama translates the inscription. I remember watching this years ago and hearing her utter some gibberish, but it never occurred to me that it might have been meaningful gibberish. Unfortunately for linguists attempting to reconstruct Matoran, the comparison of the film and the text from the novelization raises some problems. The bad news: The passages aren’t completely identical. The film-version is definitely truncated. The good news: While the film-version is shorter, it actually shares many elements with the novel-version. Both of these passages clearly come from the same source, and it appears that the film-version may be a pared-down form of the version presented in the book.
 
So which one do we use? Maybe we can use both. First off, however, we need a transcription of the passage from the film. Here’s mine:

 

ma'paku <break> [??] ke'wenuka'kit[?] <break> 'akila <break> [?]'hano <break> 'nano <break> 'atuana <break> ma'kuta'tak[?]

 
Notes:
- ' indicates stress on the following syllable. This won’t play a huge role, but it does help in determining some of the word breaks.
- <break> indicates a brief pause, which I take to indicate a word-break in most cases.
- ? in brackets [?] indicates an indistinct sound. The first [??] indicates that there may have been something within the break, but it was indecipherable.
 
If we compare this transcription with the text from the novelization, we can further refine the analysis to include the more well-motivated word-breaks:

 

mapaku [?]ke wenu-kakit[?] akila [?]hano nano atuana makuta tak[?]

 
I’ve put a dash between wenu and kakit[?] based on the orthography of the novel-version (wehnua-hakeeta). Likewise, for now I’ve kept [?]ke separate from wenu based on ...kanokee wehnua...
 
[Real world intrusion here—this strikes me as very Maori, and I would not be surprised if we were dealing with a non-phonetic version of Maori text in the novelization, with the actress who voiced Nokama in the film just reading it off the script phonetically (hence the extreme reduction). That doesn’t work for everything, of course, since the novel-version includes words that don’t seem likely to be completely lost through pure phonological reduction: rahun-akh, panokeeta, etc.]
 
Anyways, now that we’ve compared both versions a bit, the next question is: Which one is canon? As far as I know, the novelization is only semi-canon, while the film is full-canon, at least when it comes to events. It would be easy to just drop the novel-version, but then we’d lose a significant piece of potential data. Ideally, we should be able to come up with an analysis that accounts for and is informed by both.
 
So here’s the plan: I will start with the film-version, taking it at face value, rather than as a truncation of the “full” version in the novelization. If we can come up with a bare-bones translation for that, the translation of the novel-version should come easily. With that in mind, I’ll revise the transcription from the film:

 

mapaku ke whenu ka kitu akila ahano nano atuana makuta taka

 
Full disclosure: In anticipation of the final analysis below, I’ve filled in the [?]-gaps from the original in a way that I think is plausible (kit[?] > kitu, [?]hano > ahano, tak[?] > taka). I’ve also modified the spelling slightly (wenu > whenu). There is definitely some potential for error here, and there will be a few more modifications before we’re finished, but this should work for now.

Next step: What could this possibly mean? We never get a straightforward translation. Here’s what Nokama says after translating the passage (taken directly from MoL): “This is the great Kanohi Mask of Light. A mask to be worn by a seventh Toa...A Toa of Light.”
 
That’s pretty much it. Main points: The inscription may identify the mask as the Mask of Light, but then again, it may not, since the Turaga already knew what it was—they were the ones who hid it, after all. Likewise, the fact that it can only be worn by a “Seventh Toa” wouldn’t make a whole lot of sense in the inscription, since a seventh Toa isn’t all that special—there were hundreds (more on that later!). I think it’s likely that most of the dialogue related to the inscription was, in fact, theatrics. The Turaga simply revealed to the Matoran that the mask was the MoL and that there would be a “seventh” Toa—all of which the Turaga knew beforehand.
 
Instead, in attempting to translate this inscription, it may be more useful to look at the origins of the MoL itself. Who wrote this inscription and why? The MoL was made on Artakha, and it was created for the specific purpose of combatting the Brotherhood of Makuta should they ever leave the straight and narrow. Artakha himself may have been the one to write the inscription, but regardless, the mask had a purpose from the beginning, and it would make sense for the inscription to pertain to that purpose: If the Makuta ever go bad, take this mask and find an Av-Matoran. I think it makes sense, at least! But we won’t know until we’ve got a translation, will we? This post has set the stage for just such an endeavor...
 
Next time.

 


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A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume VIII

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 17 2013 · 535 views
the end

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME VIII :: V-Z

 
-V-
 
 |stm.|  1. (abstract) time; 2. timeline, progression, advance, headway [Variant forms: (ā > ō / __#), vah-]
vahi  |n.|  (Kanohi) lit. “time-thing” [vahi < vā-hī, from “(abstract) time” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
vahki  |n.|  judge, law-keeper; lit. “measurer of limits” [vahki < fā-hiki, from fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction; roof/ceiling, sky” and hik “measurement, extent” (see entry) - FD: MN#3]
vakama  |n.cmpd.|  (the) future; lit. “movement of time” [vakama < vā-kama, from “time” and ka-ma “to move”]
vako  |n.|  species of Rahi-bull; lit. “part of stampede/charge” [vako < va-kī-ō, from “time; timeline, progression, advance, headway”, the particle “part, piece, portion of” and the nounal particle ō. The term is applied in reference to the behavior of vako herds]
valma  |vn.|  awaiting; lit. “seeking (a particular) time” [valma < vā-elma, from “time” and el-ma “to seek, search”]
valmai  |n.|  (archaic) place of awaiting; cursed place [valmai < valma-hī, from valma “awaiting” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
vamprah  |n.cmpd.|  always feeding/devouring; lit. “continuously made strong/satiated thing” [vamprah < vamu-pra-hī, from vamu “always, continuously”, the stem pra “strengthened, made strong” (variant of par, see entry), and the particle “thing, object, place”]
vamu  |adv.|  always, continuously [vamu < vā-amu, an adverb grammaticalized from the nounal complex vā-amu, from “time; progression, advance” and the particle amu “through, by (transitional-instrumental)”]
varian  |n.|  1. time-struggler; lit. “one who strives against time”; 2. prisoner; lit. “one who strives against bonds/limits” [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology is varian < vā-ari-ān, from “time”, ari “striving, struggling; climbing” (variant of , see entry), and ān “being, individual”; another proposed etymology is varian < fā-ari-ān, from fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction; roof/ceiling”, ari “striving, struggling; climbing” (variant of see entry), and ān “being, individual”]
vatuka  |n.|  (Rahi-) limited will-power [vatuka < fa-atu-ka, from fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction; roof/ceiling”, atu “mind, will”, and ka “power, force, ability”. Applied to the elemental vatuka rock-creatures, in reference to their apparently half-sentient nature]
veli  1.  |vn./adj.| (archaic) awaiting, abiding; 2. |n.| (modern) riddle, secret knowledge [veli < vel-ī, from vel-, a contraction of earlier valma “awaiting” (vel- < vā-el- < vā-el-ma) and the nounal particle ī]
velika  |n.cmpd.|  1. powerful abiding/awaiting one; 2. riddler, keeper of secret knowledge [velika < veli-ka, from veli “awaiting, abiding; riddle, secret knowledge” and ka “power(ful), force, ability”]
vezo  |n./adj.|  double, twofold [etymology uncertain]
vezok  |n.|  duplicity, treachery; lit. “very two-faced” [vezok < vezo-ak, from vezo “double, twofold” and the intensive particle -ak]
vezon  |n.|  double, twin, doppleganger [vezon < vezo-ān, from vezo “double, twofold” and  ān “being, individual”]
vhiso  |n.|  scholar; lit. “desiring subtle-things/facts” [vhiso < fi-hī-sā, from fi “subtle, fine, cunning; web”, the particle “thing, object, place”, and the primeval stem “hungering, desiring”]
vhisola  |n.cmpd.|  excellent scholar [vhisola < vhiso-la, from vhiso “scholar” and the modifying particle -la “good, excellent”]
vika  |n.cmpd.|  cunning power/ability [vika < fi-ka, from the stem fi “subtle, fine, cunning; web” and ka “power, force, ability”. Variant form: vica]
vikan  |n.cmpd.|  one with cunning ability [vican < vika-ān, from vika “cunning power/ability” and ān “being, individual”. Variant form: vican]
vira  |n.|  1. wildly cunning; 2. sprawling web [vira < fi-ra, from fi ”subtle, fine, cunning; web” and ra “wild(ness), untamed”]
vis  |n.|  Rahi-spider; lit. “web-creature” [vis < fi-s, from fi “subtle, fine, cunning; web” and the Rahi-designation affix -s]
viso  |n.|  poison; lit. “spider-substance” [viso < vis-ō, from vis “spider” and the nounal particle ō]
visorak  |n.cmpd.|  poisonous scourge, menace [visorak < visou-rak, from visou “poisonous” and rak “extreme wildness, lawlessness, violence; menace, scourge”]
visou  |adj.|  poisonous [visou < viso-u, from viso “poison” and the adjectival particle u]
vo  |n./stm.|  elemental lightning [vo < vō, from the primeval elemental stem “elemental lightning”. Variant forms: vo-, vol (l-modified)]
vohi  |n.|  spark; discharge [vohi < vo-hī, from vo “elemental lightning” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
voho  |n.|  static, static charge [voho < vohi-ō, from vohi “spark; discharge” and the nounal particle ō]
vohon  |n.|  static/charged being [vohon < voho-ān, from voho “static, static charge” and ān “being, individual”]
vohta  |n.|  discharging/aggressive/volatile spirit [vohta < vohi-ta, from vohi “spark; discharge” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
vohtarak  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “volatile/aggressive menace” [vohtarak < vohta-rak, from vohta “discharging/aggressive/volatile spirit” and rak “menace, scourge”]
voli  |adj.|  flickering, flashing, wavering [voli < vo-li, from vo “elemental lightning” and the primeval modifying particle li]
volitak  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) stealth; lit, “flickering/wavering spirit” [volitak < voli-ta-ak, from voli “flickering, flashing, wavering”, ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”, and the intensive particle -ak]
volo  |n.|  vitality, energy (substance) [volo < vol-ō, from the l-modified elemental stem vol “elemental lightning” and the nounal particle ō]
vopo  |n.|  time-passing, age, erosion, entropy [vopo < vapo-, from “time” and “elemental stone” (with final ā > ō vowel shift), yielding a sense of “time’s effect on stone; erosion”]
voporak  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “scourge of time/entropy” [voporak < vopo-rak, from vopo “time-passing, age, erosion, entropy” and rak “menace, scourge”]
vor  |n.|  hunger, energy-draining [vor < vō-ūr, from vo “elemental lightning” and the particle ūr(u) “un-, negative, not” - FD: MN#1]
vorahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “devouring wild thing; devourer” [vorahk < vor-rahk, from vor “hunger, energy-draining” and rahk “wild/untamable thing” - FD: MN#1]
voriki  |n.cmpd.| (a) lightning bolt, shaft of lightning [voriki < vo-rī-kī, from vo “elemental lightning”, “wild, uncontrolled, violent”, and “part, piece, portion of”]
vorzakh  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “great restricting judge/law-keeper” [vorzakh < vor-zatahki-ak, from vor (< fā-oro, a compound of fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction” and oro “word, unit of communication” in imitation of boh-oro, see entry bohrok), zatahki “judge, law-keeper” (an earlier form of dahki, see entry), and the intensive particle -ak - FD: MN#3]
vo-ya  |v.|  to conduct energy, flow (along), journey [From vo “elemental lightning” and the verbal particle ya]
voya-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great journey [From voya “journey, current” (nominalized from the verbal complex vo-ya) and nui “great, significant”]
vua  |n.|  great energy; power-reservoir [vua < vo-wa, from vo “elemental lightning” and wa “wide, great, large”]
vuata  |n.|  power source; lit. “essence of great energy” [vuata < vua-ta, from vua “great energy” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
vuata-maca  |n.cmpd.|  power source and power distributor [From vuata “power source” and maca “power distributor”]
vultraz  |n.cmpd.|  bird of prey; lit. “predatory sky-wing” [vultraz < fultriazi < faol-tiri-azi, from the stem faol “sky, ceiling” (u/l-modified from fā(n)), tiri “wing, flat appendage”, and azi “violence, predatory” (variant of, see entry)]
 
-W-
 
wa  |adj./stm.|  wide, great, large
wahi  |n.|  region, place [wahi < wa-hī, from wa “wide, great, large” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
wai-  |p.|  possessive particle [wai < *uai, originally denoting an object as being possessed (by something). Variant form: -ui (see entry) - FD: MN#7]
waikiru  |n.|  (Rahi) possessing tusks [waikiru < wai-kiru, from the possessive particle wai (originally denoting possession of the object) and kiru “tusk, tooth”]
wairuha  |n.|  possessing wisdom [wairuha < wai-ruha, from the possessive particle wai (originally denoting possession of the object) and ruha “contemplation, stillness; wisdom” (variant of rua, see entry)]
whe  |n.|  underground [whe < uw-hī, from uw “under, lower, below” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
whenua  |n.cmpd.|  hidden/secret underground [whenua < whe-nua, from whe “underground” and nua “hidden, unseen, secret”]
 
-Y-
 
-ya  |p.|  verbal particle [Variant forms: i...a, a...i (splitting+displacement)]
yi  |adv./stm.|  together, combined
yi-ya  |v.|  to collect, gather, bring together [From the stem yi “together, combined” and the verbal particle ya]
 
-Z-
 
za  |n./stm.|  planning, tactic [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the set of stem-forms zī, zē, zai “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory” (see entry ). Variant form: xa]
zadakh  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “great judge/law-keeper” [zadakh < zatahki-ak, from zatahki “judge, law-keeper” (an earlier form of dahki, see entry) and the intensive particle -ak - FD: MN#3]
zahi  |n.|  plan, schematic, strategy [zahi < za-hī, za “planning, tactics” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
zakaz  |n.|  war-zone, extreme violence; lit. “violence of violence” [zakaz < zai-ak-azi, from zai “violence” (variant of , see entry), the intensive particle -ak, and azi “violence, predatory” (variant of , see entry)]
zakta  |n.|  very cunning spirit; lit. “spirit of great strategy/tactics” [zakta < za-ak-ta, from za “planning, tactic”, the intensive particle -ak, and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
zaktan  |n.|  lit. “one with a very sly/cunning spirit” [zaktan < zakta-ān, from zakta “very cunning spirit” and ān “being, individual”]
zali  |n.|  foreboding, premonition, sense of danger [zali < zai-el-ī, from zai “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory” (variant of , see entry), the stem el “seeking/searching; detection, sense”, and the nounal particle ī]
zamor  |n.|  sphere [etymology uncertain; one proposed etymology attributes the development of zamor to a rarely-attested primeval form sferu (sferu > sefur > zevor > zamor), frequently appearing as part of a compound sferu-makna. The meaning of this term is uncertain, although it is found exclusively in texts related to the Great Beings. It does not appear to be Matoran in origin]
zaria  |vn.|  retaliation; counterattacking, counter-strategy [From the verbal complex zari-ya “to retaliate, counterattack”]
zari-ya  |v.|  to retaliate, counterattack [zari-ya < za-ari-ya, from za “planning, tactics”, ari “striving, struggling; climbing” (variant of, see entry), and the verbal particle ya]
zatth  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) summoning; lit “mind/will of authority” [zatth < zata-ath, from a primeval compound za-ta (later da) “authority, order” and ath, a heavily reduced form of atu “mind, will”]
ze  |adj./stm.|  empty, emptied out, drained [Variant forms: zi, se]
zemi  |n.|  absence, excavation; lit. “increasing emptiness” [zemi < ze-mi, from ze “empty, emptied out, drained” and mi “up, upward, rising”]
zem-ya  |v.|  to excavate, empty/hollow out [zem-ya < zemi-ya, from zemi “absence, excavation” and the verbal particle ya]
 |n./stm.|  strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory [Variant forms: zai, zē, zy, xi, azi]
zia  |vn.|  planning, schematic, engineering [From the verbal complex zī-ya “to strategize”. Variant form: xia]
zivon  |n.|  creature of violent energy [zivon < zī-vo-ān, from “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory”, vo “elemental lightning; energy”, and ān “being, individual”]
zu  |adj.|  tactical [zu < za-u, from za “planning, tactics” and the adjectival particle u]
zya  |v.|  (archaic) to strategize, attack [zya < zī-ya, from “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory” and the verbal particle ya]
zyglak  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “extremely treacherous/traitorous power” [zyglak < zy-kal-ak, from zy “strategy, planning, scheming; violence; predatory” (a variant of , see entry), the modified stem kal “power, force, ability”, and the intensive particle -ak]
 
--------------------
 
Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| - Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”
 


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A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume VII

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 06 2013 · 434 views

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME VII :: T-U

 
-T-
 
ta  |n./stm.|  1. elemental fire; 2. spirit, being, essence; 3. courage, ability, leadership; 4. fierce, rash, brash [ta < tā, from the elemental stem “elemental fire”. Variant forms: ta-, tal (l-modified), tau (u-modified, see entry tu), tah, tō (ā > ō / __# )]
tahnok  |n.|  fire-designation Bohrok [FD: MN#2]
tahtorak  |n.cmpd.|  very fierce speaker/orator [tahtorak < tah-toro-ak, from tah (variant of ta, see entry) “elemental fire; fierce, rash, brash”, toro “speaker, orator”, and the intensive particle -ak]
tahu¹  |adj.|  fiery, flaming [etymology uncertain; possibly tahu < tah-u, from tah (variant of ta, see entry) “elemental fire” and the adjectival particle u]
tahu²  |n.|  play of flame; lit. “sport/activity of fire” [etymology uncertain; possible tahu < ta-huw, from ta “elemental fire” and the stem huw “sport, activity”]
tai  |n.|  spirit, being, essence [tai < ta-ī, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and the nounal particle ī]
taiki  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “spirit of (a) high place” [taiki < ta-ikhi, from the elemental stem ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and ikhi “high-place” (variant of inikhi, see entry)]
taipu  |n.cmpd.|  friendly spirit [taipu < tai-pu, from tai “spirit, being, essence” and pu “friend(ly), ally”]
taka  |n.|  firelight, torchlight, illumination; heat [taka < ta-ka, from ta “elemental fire” and ka “power, force, ability”, yielding a sense of “light cast by fire/torch; light that leads the way”]
takado  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “order through enlightenment/illumination” [takado < taka-dā, from taka “illumination” (see entry) and “authority, order” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]

takadox  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “greater order through enlightenment/illumination” [takadox < takado-ak-si, from takado “lit. ‘order through enlightenment/illumination’”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
takanuva  |n.cmpd.|  new illumination [takanuva < taka-nuva, from taka “illumination” (see entry) and nuva “new, original”]
takea  |n.|  king of sharks [takea < ta-kea, from ta “elemental fire; courage, ability, leadership” and kea “Rahi-shark”]
takha  |vn.|  crafting, craft [takha < ta-ha, nominalized from the verbal complex ta-ha “to heat, forge, weld; to craft (smthg); lit. make-with-fire” - FD: MN#6]
taku  |n.|  Rahi-bird; flying spirit [taku < ta-kua, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and kua “bird, flying thing” (see entry). Applied to the taku subspecies of gukko-bird]
takua  |n.cmpd.|  1. bird of fire; 2. free/independent spirit; 3. broad illumination; great illuminator [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology, encompassing meanings 1. and 2., is takua < ta-kua, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and kua “bird; free, free-flying” (see entry); another proposed etymology is takua < taka-wa, from taka “firelight, torchlight, illumination” and the stem wa “wide, great, large”]
talvi  |n.|  subtle flame [talvi < tal-fi, from the l-modified elemental stem tal “elemental fire” and fi “subtle, fine, cunning; web, silk”]
tamaru  |n.cmpd.|  imagination, dream; lit. “flight of spirit” [tamaru < ta-mairu, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and mairu “levitation, floating” (variant of miru, see entry). Variant form: tamairu]
tanma  |n.cmpd.|  soaring/uplifted spirit [tanma < ta-ān-mai, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”, ān “being, individual”, and mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry)]
tara  |n.|  wild spirit; spirit of wildness [tara < ta-ra, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and ra “wild(ness), untamed”]
tarakava  |n.cmpd.|  rapid/rushing spirit of wildness [tarakava < tara-kava, from tara “spirit of wildness” and kava “rapid, rushing, breathless”]
te  |stm.|  vessel, contained space [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the stem ti “space, area” (see entry); one proposed etymology derives both stems from the elemental stem ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” (see entry)]
tehu  |n.|  archiving; archivist [tehu < te-huw, from the stems te “vessel, contained space” and huw “activity, sport”]
tehutti  |n.cmpd.|  willful archivist [tehutti < tehu-atti, from tehu “archiving; archivist” and atti “willful” (variant of atui, see entry)]
ter  |stm./n.|  1. guidance, guiding-force; lit. “application of leadership” [ter < tēr < ta-ār, from ta “elemental fire; bravery, ability, leadership” and the particle ār “applied, application of; applied against, resistance, hindering”. Variant forms: -tar, tre, tra]
teridax  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “guide toward greater order/greater execution of the Plan” [teridax < ter-īda-ak-si, from ter “guidance, guiding-force”, the nounal complex ī-da “toward order”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si - FD: MN#6]
thok  |adj.|  extremely fierce [thok < tho-ak, from tho “fierce” (Skakdi dialectal variant of toi, see entry) and the intensive particle -ak]
thulo  |n.|  obedience; lit. “excitement (about one’s) duty” [thulo < thou-lho, from thou “red; fiery, lively” (< tou, variant of toi, see entry) and lho “duty, function, assigned purpose”]
thulox  |n.|  greater obedience [thulox < thulo-ak-si, from thulo “obedience”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
ti  |stm.|  space, area [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the stem te “vessel, contained space” (see entry); one proposed etymology derives both stems from the elemental stem ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” (see entry)]
tiki  |n.|  airspace; lit. “part of space” [tiki < ti-kī, from the stem ti “space, area” and the particle “part, piece, portion of”]
tikko  |n.|  icy wind [tikko < tiki-ko, from tiki “airspace; lit. ‘part of space’” and ko “elemental ice”]
tiri  |n.|  wing, flat appendage [etymology uncertain; possibly tiri < ti-rui, from ti “space, area”] and rui “joint”]
tiribomba  |n.cmpd.|  jungle-leaf; lit. “wing of branch/tree” [tiribomba < tiri-bomba, from tiri “wing, flat appendage” and bomba “trunk, branch, limb of plant”. Used as a term for the broad, spade-like leaves of the common gamadu tree]
tiro  |n.|  narrow canyon/ravine; lit. “narrow/bounded space” [tiro < ti-ro, from ti “space, area” and ro “line, edge, boundary” (variant of rho, see entry)]
toa  |n.|  hero, protector; lit. “spirit of protection” [toa < tau-hā, from the u-modified elemental stem tau “elemental fire; essence/spirit, result-of-process” and “protection, peace/calm, systems-normal”. Variant forms: toua, tua]
tobdu  |n.cmpd.|  iron will; lit. “will of (a) fiery being/creature” [tobdu < toubatu < tou-pi-atu, from tou “red; fiery, lively” (variant of toi, see entry), pi “agent, perpetrator; creature”, and atu “mind, will”]
tobduk  |n.|  survivor, fighter [tobduk < tobdu-ak, from tobdu “iron will” and the intensive particle -ak]
toi  |adj.|  red; fiery, lively [toi < ta-ui, from ta “elemental fire” and the adjectival particle ui. Variant forms: taui, toui, tou, tuy, tho (Skakdi variant)]
toro  |n.|  speaker, orator [toro < ta-oro, from ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and oro “word, unit(s) of communication”]
toudo  |n.|  energetic/eccentric spirit [toudo < tou-tā, from tou “red; fiery, lively” (variant of toi, see entry) and “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
trali  |adj.|  guided, controlled [trali < tra-li, from tra “guidance, guiding force” (variant of tre < ter) and the primeval modifying particle li]
trei  |stm.|  guiding together [trei < tre-yi, from the stem tre “guidance, guiding-force” (variant of ter, see entry) and yi “together, combined”]
tren  |n.|  guide; lit. “guide-being” [tren < tre-ān, from the stem tre “guidance, guiding-force” (variant of ter, see entry) and ān “being, individual” - FD: MN#6]
tridax  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “organizer of greater order/authority” [tridax < trei-da-ak-si, from the stem trei “guiding together”, da “order, authority”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
tryna  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) lit. “guiding together a great host” [tryna < trei-ana, from the stem trei “guiding together” and ana “group, host; many beings”. Variant forms: traina, treina]
-tu  |p.|  spirit/essence; result of process [tu < tau, from the u-modified elemental stem tau “spirit/essence; result of process” (see entry ta). Variant forms: to-, -ta, -tau]
tūli  |adj.|  animated, excited, energetic [tūli < tou-li, from tou “red; fiery, lively” (variant of toi, see entry) and the primeval modifying particle li]
tur  |n.|  fear, terror [tur < ta-ūr, from ta “elemental fire; leadership, courage” and ūr(u) “un-, negative, not”]
turaga  |n.cmpd.|  1. courageous/leading elder; 2. elder-Toa [turaga < toa-raga, from toa “hero; protector” and raga “elder”]
turahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “terrifying wild thing” [turahk < tur-rahk, from tur “fear, terror” and rahk “wild/untamable thing” - FD: MN#1]
turu-ha  |v.|  to fear, be fearful [From the stem tūr(u) “fear, terror” and the verbal particle ha]†
tuyet  |n.|  fiery will [tuyet < toui-et, from toui “red, fiery” (variant of toi, see entry) and et “mind, will” (a heavily reduced form of atu, see entry)]
 
-U-
 
ua  |pro.|  one, they (impersonal) [4th pers., subject form - FD: LM#7]†
udui  |n.|  leg; lit. “lower-limb” [udui < uw-dui, from the stem uw “under, lower, below” and dui “limb, appendage; extension”. Variant forms: odui, oduhi, oduh]†
uduno  |n.cmpd.|  south (cardinal direction) [uduno < udui-ono, from udui “leg” and ono “protodermis”. This term patterns traditionally with terms for cardinal directions in that such terms appear to be derived from parts of the body (see entries maiduno, meno, midouno). Variant form: udouno]†
uhu-ya  |v.|  to practice; imitate [From the stem uhu “practice, activity; imitation” (variant of huw “sport, activity”) and the verbal particle ya]
-ui  |p.|  possessive particle [ui < *uai, originally denoting an object that possesses something. Variant form: wai- (see entry) - FD: MN#7]†
uko  |p.|  outside, external (locative particle) [Variant form: ko...u (splitting+displacement)]
ukua  |n.|  diving-bird [ukua < uw-kua, from uw “under, lower, below” and kua “bird, flying thing” (see entry)]
(u)kuta  |n.|  lesser spirit, being of lesser rank [ukuta < uku-ta, from the particle (u)ku “middle, in the midst of” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
us  |n.|  steed; lit. “under-thing” [us < uw-s, from the stem uw “under, lower, below” and the Rahi-designation affix -s]
us-ha  |v.|  to ride [From us “steed” and the verbal particle ha]
ussa  |n.|  steed, mount, vehicle [ussa < us-ha, from the verbal complex us-ha “to ride”. Variant form: usha]
ussal  |n.|  Rahi-crab; lit. “ridden/riding-thing” [ussal < ussa-li, from ussa “steed, mount, vehicle” and the primeval modifying particle li. Variant form: ushal]
ussanui  |n.cmpd.|  great steed/vehicle [ussanui < ussa-nui, from ussa “steed, mount, vehicle” and nui “great, significant”]
uw  |adv./stm.|  under, lower, below [Variant forms: u-, ū, au]
 
----------------------
 
Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| - Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”
 


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A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume VI

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 06 2013 · 330 views

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME VI :: R-S

 

-R-
 
ra  |adj./stm.|  1. wild, free, untamed; 2. strive, struggle; climb [Variant form: ar(a)i (verbal)]
radi  |n.|  laughter; wild, gibbering sound [radi < ra-de, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and de “elemental sound”]
radiak  |n.|  raucous sound/laughter [radiak < radi-ak, from radi “laughter; wild, gibbering sound” and the intensive particle -ak]
raga  |n./stm.|  elder, wise one; lit. “tamed, wildness-at peace” [raga < ra-ga, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and ga “elemental water; peace, calm, settledness”]
rahaga  |n.cmpd.|  1. guardian of wild(-things), beast-master; 2. wild guardians [rahaga < ra-hagah, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and hagah “guardian”]
rahi  |n.|  Rahi, wild thing, beast [rahi < ra-hī, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
rahi-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great rahi [From rahi “wild thing, beast” and nui “great, significant”]
rahk  |n.|  wild/untamable thing [rahk < ra-hī-ak, from ra “wild(ness), untamed”, the particle “thing, object, place”, and the intensive particle -ak]
rahkshi  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) wild/untamable offspring/spawn [rahkshi < rahk-shi, from rahk “wild/untamable thing” and shi “offspring, spawn” - FD: MN#1]
rak  |n./stm.|  extreme wildness, lawlessness, violence; menace, scourge [rak < ra-ak, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and the intensive particle -ak. Variant form: rakk (Skakdi dialect)]
rakauhi  |n.|  wild bird [rakauhi < ra-kau-hī, from ra “wild(ness), untamed”, kau “free-flowing, breathing; flying” and the particle “thing, object, place”. Variant forms: rakohi, rockoh]
rak-ya  |v.|  to commit crime/violence, to wrong; to murder [From the stem rak “extreme wildness, lawlessness, violence” and the verbal particle ya]†
rama  |n.|  flying Rahi-insect [rama < ra-mai, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry), yielding a sense of “flying wild-thing”. Variant forms: ramai, rami]
ranama  |n.|  predatory Rahi; lit. “mastery of many wild things” [ranama < ra-nā-ma, from ra “wild(ness), untamed”, the plural particle , and ma(t) “mastery, control”. Applied to the ranama species of Rahi-toad, referencing their fierce predatory nature]

rau  |n.|  (Kanohi-) translation, understanding [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to oro “word, unit of communication”, possibly rau < roua < ro-wa, from ro “word, unit of communication” and wa “wide, great, large; expanse”, yielding an original sense of “many words, expanse of words”]
rehi  |n.|  home, homeland [rehi < rei-hī, from rei “home, nest, safe place” and the particle “thing, object place”]
rehix  |n.|  community; lit. “greater home” [rehix < rehi-ak-si, from rehi “home, homeland”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
rei  |n./stm.|  home, nest, safe place [etymology uncertain. Variant forms: rey, rye, rī, rea]
reidak  |n.|  extremely wild/violent spirit [reidak < rei-ta-ak, from rei “wild, uncontrolled, violent” (Skakdi dialectal variant of , see entry), ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” and the intensive particle -ak]
reysa  |n.|  homesickness; lit. “hunger for home” [reysa < rey-sa, from rey (variant of rei, see entry) and the stem sa “hungering; desiring”]
rho  |n./stm.|  line, edge, boundary [etymology uncertain; Variant forms: ro, rō]
rhotu  |n.|  wheel, ring, circle [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the stem rho “line, edge, boundary”, possibly rhotu < rho-tu, from rho “line, edge, boundary” and tu (< du) “extension, scope, reach; influence”]
rhotuka  |n.cmpd.|  wheel of energy [rhotuka < rhotu-ka, from rhotu “wheel, ring, circle” and ka “power, force, ability”]
rī  |adj.|  wild, uncontrolled, violent [rī < ra-ui, from ra “wild(ness), untamed” and the adjectival particle ui. Variant forms: raui, rai, rei (Skakdi variant)]
ris  |n.|  bird; nesting creature; lit. “nest-spawn” [ris < rī-s, from “home, nest, safe-place” (variant of rei, see entry) and the Rahi-designation affix -s. Variant form: reas]
rōdaka  |n.cmpd.|  heir, ascendant; lit. “(on the) edge of powerful authority” [rōdaka < rō-da-ka, from “line, edge” (variant of rho, see entry), da “order, authority”, and ka “power(ful), force, ability”]
rode  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) truth, clarity, clear communication; lit. “sound of word” [rode < ro-de, from ro “word, unit of communication” (variant of oro, see entry) and de “elemental sound”]
ropo  |n.|  patience [ropo < ro-po, from ro “contemplation, stillness” (variant of rua, see entry) and po “elemental stone”, yielding a sense of “stillness of stone”]
roporak  |n.cmpd.|  patient menace; lit. “scourge of patience” [roporak < ropo-rak, from ropo “patience” and rak “menace, scourge”]
rorzakh  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “great limiting judge/law-keeper” [rorzakh < rhor-zatahki-ak, from rhor (from rho-oro, a compound of rho “line, edge, boundary” and oro “word, unit of communication” in imitation of boh-oro, see entry bohrok), zatahki “judge, law-keeper” (an earlier form of dahki, see entry), and the intensive particle -ak - FD: MN#3]
ru  |n./adj./stm.|  orientation; oriented toward; intention [etymology uncertain]
rua  |n.|  (Kanohi-) contemplation, stillness; wisdom; lit. “peaceful orientation/intention” [rua < ru-ha, from ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention” and ha “protection, peace/calm, systems-normal”. Variant forms: ruha, ro-]
rui¹  |n.|  joint; lit. “orienting thing” [rui < ru-hī, from ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention” and the particle “thing, object, place”]†
rui²  |adj.| oriented toward [rui < ru-ui, from ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention” and the adjectival particle ui]
ruki  |n.|  school-swimming Rahi-fish; lit. “part of (larger) orientation” [ruki < ru-kī, from ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention” and the particle “part, piece, portion of”]
ruru  |n.|  (Kanohi-) sensory-awareness, night-vision; lit. “orientation-of-orientation” [From an intensivizing reduplication of ru “orientation; intention”]
 
-S-
 
-s |aff.|  Rahi-designation [An affix derived from shi “offspring, spawn” (see entry)]
sa  |stm.|  hungering, desiring [sa < sā, from the stem “hungering desiring”. Variant forms: , -so (ā > ō / _#)]
san  |stm./adj.|  precise, accurate, clear [etymology uncertain]
sano  |n.|  accuracy, precision [sano < san-ō, from the stem san “precise, accurate, clear” and the nounal particle ō]
sanok  |n.|  (Kanohi-) extreme accuracy/precision [sanok < sano-ak, from sano “accuracy, precision” and the intensive particle -ak]
sanso  |adj.|  focused, obsessive; lit. “desire for precision” [sanso < san-sā, from the stem san “precise, accurate, clear” and “hungering, desiring” (older form of sa, see entry, with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
sare  |adj.|  nostalgic, wistful, sad [sare < sa-rei, from sa “hungering, desiring”, rei “home, nest, safe-place”]
sarda  |n.|  nostalgic/wistful/sad spirit [sarda < sare-ta, from sare “nostalgic, wistful, sad” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
sau  |adj.|  hungry, desirous; living, active [sau < sa-u, from sa “hungering, desiring” and the adjectival particle u. Variant form: ]
se  |n./stm.|  elemental psionics [se < sē, from the primeval stem “elemental psionics”. Variant forms: se-, ce-, sul (u/l-modified)]
sentrahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “emptying (a) being-vessel of untamable-wildness” [sentrahk < se-ān-te-rahk, from se “empty, emptied out” (variant of ze, see entry), ān “being, individual”, te “vessel, contained space”, and rahk “wild/untamable thing”]
shasa  |n.|  reserved, shy; lit. “desiring silence” [shasa < shai-sa, from shai “silence; mute, quiet” (variant of she, see entry) and sa “hungering, desiring”]
she  |n.|  silence, muteness; whisper [she < shē, from the stem shē “silence; mute, quiet”. Variant forms: sha, shai, shī]
shelek  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) complete deaf-muteness [shelek < she-leu-ak, from the stem she “silence, muteness; whisper”, the u-modified elemental stem leu “elemental air; listening/hearing/speaking”, and the intensive particle -ak]
shi  |n.|  offspring, spawn [shi < isi-hī, from isi “possibility; possible” and the particle “thing, object, place” - FD: MN#1]
shu  |adj.|  silent; whispering [shu < she-u, from she “silence, muteness; whisper” and the adjectival particle u]
sido  |n.|  commander, decision-maker; lit. “authority over possibilities” [sido < isi-dā, from isi “possible; possibility” and “authority, order” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
sidorak  |n.cmpd.|  commander of the menace/scourge [sidorak < sido-rak, from sido “commander, decision-maker” and rak “menace, scourge”]
solek  |n.cmpd.|  blazing wind [solek < su-le-ak, from su “elemental plasma; bright, blazing”, le “elemental air”, and the intensive particle -ak. Variant form: sulek]
spinax  |n.cmpd.|  great tracker/hunter [spinax < sa-pin-ak-s, from sa “hungering, desiring”, pin “subject, target”, the intensive particle -ak, and the Rahi-designation suffix -s. Variant forms: spainax, spinaks]
spiriah  |n.cmpd.|  1. (archaic) strategic experiment; 2. (modern) empty experiment; failure [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology is spiriah < zī-piriahi,“strategy, planning, scheming” and piriahi “experiment”; another proposed etymology is spiriah < zi-piriahi, from zi “empty/emptied space” and piriahi “experiment”]
su  |n./stm.|  elemental plasma [su < sū, from the primeval elemental stem “elemental plasma”. Variant form: su-]
sūko  |n.|  stasis, suspension [sūko < -ko, from “living, active” (variant of sau, see entry) and ko “elemental ice”. Variant form: sauko]
sūkorak  |n.cmpd.|  scourge of stasis/suspension [sūkorak < sūko-rak, from sūko “stasis, suspension” and rak “menace, scourge”. Variant form: saukorak]
suletu  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) psionic will, mind of psionics [suletu < sul-atu, from the u/l-modified elemental stem sul “elemental psionics” (see entry se) and atu “mind, will” - FD: NM]
suva  |n.|  shrine, gathering place [etymology uncertain; possibly related to “time”, with reference to the design-parallels between the suva-mechanisms and the common layout of the Matoran sundial]
 
--------------------
 
Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| - Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”
 


Photo

A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume V

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Nov 06 2013 · 353 views

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME V :: N-P

 
-N-
 
  |p.|  many, multiple (plural particle) [Variant forms: nāl (l-modified), - (ā > ō / __#]
naho  |n.|  protection of many [naho < nā-hō, from the plural particle “many, plural” and “protection, peace/calm, systems-normal” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
nai  |n./p.|  all [nai < nā-ī, from the plural particle and the nounal particle ī. Variant form: ]
nai-ya  |v.|  to multiply, proliferate [From nai “all” and the verbal particle ya]
nalo  |n.|  group, collection, herd [nalo < nāl-ō, from nāl, a stem-modification of the plural particle , and the nounal particle ō]
nekta  |n.|  overlord, high rank; lit. “very large spirit” [nekta < ne-ak-ta, from ne “great, big” (Skakdi dialectal variant of nui, see entry), the intensive particle -ak, and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
nektann  |n.|  overlord/high-ranking being [nektann < nekta-ann, from nekta “overlord, high rank” and ann “being, individual” (Skakdi dialectal variant of ān, see entry)]
nga  |adj./n.|  one; first, lone [etymology uncertain]
ngai  |adj.|  elite [ngai < ngaui, from nga “one; first, lone” and the adjectival particle ui. Variant form: ngoi]
ngalawa  |n.|  boat-race; lit. “first-boat” [ngalawa < nga-lawa, from nga “one, first; lone” and lawa “boat, floating vessel”]
ngu  |adj./n.|  last, final; alone [ngu < nga-u, from nga “one; first, lone” (see entry) and the adjectival particle u]
ni  |p.|  one who (personifying particle)
niazesk  |n.|  (Rahi-) terrible swarming predator [niazesk < niazis-ak, from niazis “Rahi-insect; swarming predator” and the intensive particle -ak. Variant form: niazisak]
niazis  |n.|  Rahi-insect; swarming predator [niazis < niya-azi-s, from niya “multiplying, swarming” (stem variant derived from the verbal complex nai-ya, see entry), azi “violence, predatory” (variant of zai, zī), and the Rahi-designation suffix -s]
nidi  |n.|  cunning, slyness; thievery [nidi < ni-zi-ti, from the particle ni “person/place who”, zi “empty, emptied out” (variant of ze, see entry), and ti “vessel”, yielding an original sense of “one who empties vessels; thief”]
nidhiki  |n.cmpd.|  1. measurer of cunning; 2. cunning deception [nidhiki < nidi-hiki, from nidi “cunning, slyness; theivery” and hiki (multiple meanings, see entries)]
nihu  |adj.|  starry; glittering, sparkling [nihu < nih-u, from i(n)ih “high, elevated; star(s)” and the adjectival particle u]
niki  |n.|  (individual) star; lit. “piece of star(s)” [niki < nih-kī, from i(n)ih “high, elevated; star(s)” and the particle “part, piece, portion of”]
nikila  |n.cmpd.|  precious falling-star [nikila < niki-la, from niki “(individual) star; lit. ‘piece of star(s)’” and the modifying particle -la “good, excellent”]
nireta  |n.|  sailor, seaworthy one; lit. “spirit at home on the sea” [nireta < nī-rei-ta, from “(liquid) protodermis; sea, ocean”, rei “home, nest, safe place”, and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
nita  |adj.|  uplifted, enlightened [nita < ni-ta, from i(n)ih “high, elevated; star(s)” and the elemental stem ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
nita-ya  |v.|  to uplift, enlighten [From nita “uplifted, enlightened” and the verbal particle ya]  
nivawk  |n.|  Rahi-hawk; lit. “under the high sky” [nivawk < nih-fau-ak, from i(n)ih “high, elevated; star(s)”,  fau “under-roof”, and the intensive particle -ak]
nixie  |n.|  astrology, lit. “star-possibilities” [nixie < niki-isi, from niki “(individual) star(s), lit. ‘piece of star(s)’” and isī (< isi) “possible; possibility”]
nohi  |n.|  face; mask [nohi < no-hī, from no (< ono) “protodermis” and the particle “thing, object, place”. Originates as a term used by mask-makers in reference to powerless Matoran masks]
noi  |n.|  (liquid) protodermis; sea, ocean [noi < no-ī, from no (< ono) “protodermis” and the nounal particle ī. Variant form: ]

noka  |n.|  (Kanoka-) disk; powerful protodermic object [noka < no-ka, from no (< ono) “protodermis” and ka “power(ful), force, ability”]
nokama  |n.cmpd.|  tide; current; lit. “movement of the sea (liquid protodermis)” [nokama < noi-kama, from noi “(liquid) protodermis; sea, ocean” and ka-ma “to move”]

nokoro  |n.|  cliff, dome-barrier [nokoro < no-koro, from no (< ono) “protodermis” and koro “(archaic) wall, barrier”]†
nokoro-nui  |n.cmpd.|  the Great Barrier [From nokoro “cliff, dome-barrier” and nui “great, significant”]†
norik  |n.|  command of many [norik < nā-orik, from the plural particle “many, plural” and orik “command, authority”. Variant form: noryk]
nua  |adj.|  hidden, unseen, secret [etymology uncertain; Variant forms: na, nu, ny]
nuhvok  |n.|  earth-designation Bohrok [FD: MN#2]
nuhrī  |n.|  mask-maker; lit. “oriented toward mask(s)” [nuhrī < nohi-rī, from nohi “face; mask” (see entry) and the particle , a reduction of rui “oriented toward” (< ru-ui). Variant form: nuri]
nui  |adj.|  great, significant; large [nui < nā-ui, from the plural particle “many, multiple” and the adjectival particle ui. Variant forms: -, ne- (Skakdi variant)]
nui-jaga  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) giant Rahi-scorpion [From nui “great, significant” and jaga “Rahi-scorpion”]

nui-kopen  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) giant flying carver [From nui “great, significant” and kopen “flying carver”]
nui-rama  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) giant flying Rahi-insect [From nui “great, significant” and rama “flying Rahi-insect”]
nuju  |n.|  secret intelligence [nu-ju < nu-aju, from nu “hidden, unseen, secret” (variant of nua, see entry) and aju “intelligent; intelligence”]
nuparu  |n.cmpd.|  iron-monger; lit. “oriented toward earth and stone” [nuparu < nu-pa-ru, from nu “elemental earth”, pa “elemental stone”, and ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention”]
nūrakh  |n.|  firm-command-Vahki [nūrakh < nu-oro-akh, from nu “elemental earth” (variant of onu, see entry), oro “word, unit of communciation”, and the Vahki-designation affix -akh (reanalyzed from the older Vahki-designation terms, see entries bord-akh, rorz-akh, vorz-akh, zad-akh) - FD: MN#3]
nuva  |adj.cmpd.|  new, brand new, original, unique [nuva < nui-ava, from nui “great, significant” and ava “revealed, (newly) discovered” (variant of avu, see entry)]
nyn  |n.|  hidden/secret one(s) [nyn < ny-ān, from ny “hidden, unseen, secret” (variant of nua, see entry) and ān “being, individual”]
nynrah  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “wilderness of the hidden/secret ones” [nynrah < nyn-rahī, from nyn “hidden/secret one(s)” and an archaic usage of the complex ra-hī “wild place, wilderness” (ra “wild(ness), untamed” and the particle “thing, object, place”)]
 
-O-
 
o  |pro.|  I [1st pers. sg., subject form - FD: LM#7]†
oa  |pro.|  you [2nd pers. sg., subject form - FD: LM#7]†
oa-nā  |pro.|  you all [2nd pers. pl., subject form - FD: LM#7]†
odina  |n.cmpd.|  hidden southern place [odina < odī-nua, from odī, a reduced variant of udui “south” (see entry), and nua “hidden, unseen, secret”]
oduh-ya  |v.|  to walk, travel on foot [From oduh “leg” (variant of udui, see entry) and the verbal particle ya]
ōhnorak  |n.cmpd.|  mimicking/impersonating menace; lit. “scourge of mimicry” [ōhnorak < ōhno-rak, from ōhno “mimicry, impersonation” (variant of auhno, see entry) and rak “menace, scourge”]
-oki  |p.|  in, on, at; during (basic locative particle) [Variant form: ki/ke...o (splitting+displacement) - FD: LM#8]
okoth  |adj.cmpd.|  adventurous, tenacious, exploratory; lit. “will of (a) diving-bird” [okoth < ukua-ath, from ukua “diving-bird” and ath “mind, will” (a heavily reduced form of atu, see entry). Variant forms: okotu, ukot, ukuatu]
olisi  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) possible available courses/pathways [olisi < ol-isi, from the stem ol “door, gate, opening; available course/pathway” and isi “possible; possibility” - FD: MN#1]
olmak  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) powerful control of doors/gateways (dimensional gates) [olmak < ol-ma-ak, from the stem ol “door, gate, opening; available course/pathway”, ma(t) “mastery, control”, and the intensive particle -ak. Variant form: olmatak - FD: MN#1]
olo  |n.|  door, entrance, gateway [olo < ol-ō, from the stem ol “door, gate, opening; available course/pathway” and the nounal particle ō - FD: MN#1]
o-nā  |pro.|  we [1st pers. pl., subject form - FD: LM#7]†
one  |adj.|  firm, steadfast; earthy, foundational [one < onew, from the u-modified elemental stem onew “elemental earth; firm, steadfast; earthy” (variant of onuw, see entry)]
onepu  |n.cmpd.|  firm/steadfast friend [onepu < one-pu, from one “firm, steadfast; earthy, foundational” and pu “friend, ally”. Variant form: onupu]
onewa  |n.cmpd.|  firm/steadfast foundation [onewa < one-wa, from one “firm, steadfast; earthy, foundational” and the stem wa “wide, great, large; expanse”]
ono  |n./stm.|  protodermis [Variant form: no]†
onoi  |n.|  body, form [onoi < ono-hī, from ono “protodermis” and the particle “thing, object, place”. Variant form: onohi]†
onu  |n./stm.|  elemental earth [onu < onū, from the primeval elemental stem onū “elemental earth”. Variant forms: onu-, nu-, onuw/onew (u-modified, see entry onuw)]
onua  |n.cmpd.|  broad earth [onua < onu-wa, from onu “elemental earth” and the stem wa “wide, great, large; expanse”]
onui  |adj.|  black [onui < onu-ui, from onu “elemental earth” and the adjectival particle ui]†
onuw  |adj./stm.|  elemental earth; firm, steady, steadfast; earthy [Derived from the elemental stem onu “elemental earth” (see entry) via u-modification. Variant form: onew]
orde  |n.cmpd.|  mind, language/communicative faculty; lit. "vessel of words" [orde < or-te, from or "word, unit(s) of communication" (variant of oro, see entry) and te "vessel, contained space"]
ori  |n.|  word; command [ori < or-ī, from oro “word, unit(s) of communication” and the nounal particle ī]
orik  |n.|  command, authority, echelon [orik < ori-ak, from ori “word; command” and the intensive particle -ak. Also see related entry orok. Variant form: oryk]
orix  |n.|  superior command, upper echelon [orix < orik-si, from orik “command, authority” and the comparative adjectival particle si. Variant forms: oryx, -rex]
orkahm  |adj.|  racing along, careening, fluttering [orkahm < o-rakauhi-m, an adjective grammaticalized from the nounal complex o-rakauhi-m, from the split-particle amu (o...m) “through, by, via (transitional-instrumental)” and rakauhi “wild bird”. Variant form: orkan (with alternate o...n particle-split, see entry -amu)]
oro  |n.|  word; unit(s) of communication [etymology uncertain. Variant forms: ro, or]
oro-ha  |v.|  to communicate [From oro “word, unit(s) of communication” and the verbal particle ha]†
orok  |n.|  order, directive, command [orok < oro-ak, from oro “word” and the intensive particle -ak. Also see related entry orik]
oropi  |n.|  word-creature, speaker [oropi < oro-pi, from oro “word, unit of communication” and pi “agent, perpetrator; creature”]
otilin  |adv./adj.|  steadily, soundly; structured, structurally sound [otilin < o-ti-la-n, an adverb/adjective grammaticalized from the nounal complex o-ti-la-n, from ti “space, area”, the particle -la “good, excellent”, and a heavily reduced form of the split-particle -amu (o...n) ”through, by (transitional-instrumental)”]
 
-P-
 
pahrak  |n.|  stone-designation Bohrok [FD: MN#2]
paka  |n.|  strength; lit. “power of stone” [paka < pa-ka, from pa “elemental stone” (variant of po, see entry) and ka “power, force, ability”]
pakari  |vn.cmpd.|  strength, durability; lit. “exerting power of stone” [pakari < pa-akari, from pa “elemental stone” (variant of po, see entry) and akari “exertion, resistance”]
pakastā  |n.cmpd.|  harsh weather/the elements; lit. “scattering/consuming strength” [pakastā < paka-stā, from paka “strength” and the stem stā (< sā-ta) “scattering, consuming, driving out”]
pala  |n.|  good/quality stone [pala < pa-la, from pa “elemental stone” (variant of po, see entry) and the modifying particle -la “good, excellent”]
panur  |n./stm.|  shattering, breaking, fragmentation [panur < pa-nu-ūr, from pa “elemental stone” (variant of po, see entry), nu “elemental earth” (variant of onu, see entry), and the particle ūr(u) “un-, negative, not” - FD: MN#1]
panrahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “shattering wild thing; shatterer” [panrahk < panur-rahk, from panur “shattering, breaking, fragmentation” and rahk “wild/untamable thing” - FD: MN#1]
papa  |adj.|  extremely hard, stony [From an intensivizing reduplication of pa “elemental stone” (variant of po, see entry)]
par  |adj./stm.cmpd.|  strong, stolid, robust; strengthened, made strong; lit. “application of strength” [par < po-ār, from po “elemental stone” and the particle ār “applied, application of; applied against, resistance, hindering”. Variant forms: para, pra]
parakrekks  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) lit. “strengthened/robust, extremely resistant force” [parakrekks < para-krekka-s, from para “strong, stolid, robust; strengthened, made strong” (variant of par, see entry), krekka “extremely resistant force”, and the Rahi-designation affix -s - FD: MN#4]
pavohi  |n.|  lightstone [pavohi < pā-avo-hī, from pa “elemental stone”, avo “elemental light”, and the particle "thing, object, place"]†
pe  |stm.|  carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down [pe < peu < pau, derived from the elemental stem po “elemental stone” (see entry) via u-modification]
pehiki  |n.cmpd.|   small unit; lit. “carving-measurement” [pehiki < pe-hiki, from the stem pe “carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down” and hiki¹ “piece/part/portion of something; measurement”. Originates as a stone-crafting term designating a (generally small) amount of material  to be removed from a sculpture]
pehkui  |adj.|  (Kanohi-) miniature, diminished [pehkui < pehiki-ui, from pehiki “small unit” and the adjectival particle ui]
peke  |n.|  carving; carver [An agentive variant of pekeke “shard, fragment, pebble” (see entry peki)]
peki  |n.|  shard, fragment, pebble; lit. “piece of carving” [peki < pe-kī, from the stem pe “carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down”  and the particle “part, piece, portion of”. Also found in an intensivized form pekiki, pekeke]
pekka  |n.|  avalanche, rockslide [pekka < pekiki-ha, an independent lexicalization of the nounal complex pekiki-ha, from pekiki “many stones/pebbles” (intensivized variant of peki, see entry) and the particle ha “from, out of (origin)”]
peli  |adj.|  carven, sculpted [peli < pe-li, from the stem pe “carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down” and the primeval modifying particle li]
pelagia  |adj.cmpd.|  carved/sculpted by waves [pelagia < peli-agiya, from peli “carven, sculpted” and agi-ya “to wash over, immerse”]
pen  |n.|  carver [pen < pe-ān, from the stem pe “carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down” and ān “being, individual”]
pena  |n.|  (a) quarry; lit. “many carvings” [pena < pe-nā, from the stem pe “carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down” and the plural particle ]
pi  |p.|  agent, perpetrator; creature [etymology irrational]
piatra  |n.|  lit. “echo of carving” [piatra < pe-atra, from the stem pe “carve, chip; carving, sculpting, paring down” and atra “echo, resonance” (variant of artra, see entry). Variant form: peatra]
pin  |n.|  subject, target; lit. “agent-being” [pin < pi-ān, from pi “agent, perpetrator; creature” and ān “being, individual”. Variant form: pain]
piraka  |n.cmpd.|  criminal, wrongdoer; (obscenity) thief/murderer [piraka < pi-iraka, from the particle pi “agent, perpetrator; creature” and iraka “wrongdoing, crime; murder”]
piriahi  |n.|  experiment [piriahi < piri-ya-hī, from piri-ya “to manipulate” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
piri-ya  |v.|  to manipulate [piri-ya < pi-rī-ya, from pi “agent, perpetrator, creature”, , a reduction of rui “oriented toward” (rui < ru-ui) and the verbal particle ya, yielding a sense of “actively orienting/re-orienting”]
piruk  |n.|  skilled scout/agent [piruk < pi-ru-ak, from the particle pi “agent, perpetrator; creature”, ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention”, and the intensive particle -ak]
po  |n./stm.|  elemental stone [po < pā, from the primeval elemental stem “elemental stone”. Variant forms: po-, pa, poh, pe (< pau, u-modified, see entry)]
podu  |n.|  stone outcropping, pinnacle, spire [podu < po-du, from po “elemental stone” and du “extension, scope, reach; influence”]
pohatu  |n.cmpd.|  1. will of stone; 2. protecting will of stone [multi. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology is pohatu < poh-atu, from poh (variant of po, see entry) “elemental stone” and atu “mind, will”; another proposed etymology is pohatu < po-ha-atu, from po “elemental stone”, ha “protection, peace/calm, safety, systems-normal”, and atu “mind, will”]
poi  |adj.|  brown [poi < po-ui from po “elemental stone” and the adjectival particle ui. Variant form: paui]†
pokawi  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) lit. “flight of/like stone” [pokawi < po-akawi, from po “elemental stone” and akawi “flying, soaring; moving freely”. Applied to the pokawi Rahi-bird, in reference to its flightlessness]
pouks  |n.|  stone-dweller [pouks < po-oki-s, from po “elemental stone”, the particle oki “in/on/at; during (basic locative)”, and the affix -s, usually reserved for Rahi-designations]
prida  |n.|  governance, rule, strong authority; lit. “applying strength toward order” [prida < pra-īda, from the stem-compound pra “lit. ‘application of strength’” (variant of par, see entry) and the nounal complex ī-da “toward order”. Variant form: praida]
pridak  |n.|  great ruler, governor [pridak < prida-ak, from prida “governance, rule, strong authority” and the intensive affix -ak. Variant form: praidak]
pu  |n.|  friend, ally [etymology uncertain; possibly a modification of the elemental stem po “elemental stone”. Variant form: pew]
puku  |n.|  amiable friend [puku < pu-kau, from pu “friend, ally” and kau “free-flowing, unhindered” (see entry). Variant form: pewku]
 
--------------------
 
Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| - Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”
 


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A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume IV

Posted by Tolkien , in Language and Etymology, Matoran Language, Bionicle, Long Entries, linguistics Nov 04 2013 · 414 views

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME IV :: L-M

 
-L-
 
-la  |p.|  good, excellent (modifying particle) [etymology uncertain; possibly la < li-hā, from the primeval modifying particle li and the stem “protection, peace/calm, systems-normal”]
lari  |adj.|  refined, perfectionistic; lit. “oriented toward excellence” [lari < la-rī, from the particle la “good, excellent” and , a reduction of rui “oriented toward” (< ru-ui)]
lariska  |n.cmpd.|  powerful refined-creature/perfectionist [lariska < lari-s-ka, from lari “refined, perfectionistic”, the Rahi-designation affix -s, and ka “power(ful), force, ability”]
la-ya  |v.|  to be good/kind [From the particle -la “good, excellent” and the verbal particle ya]
lawa  |n.|  boat, floating vessel [etymology uncertain]
le  |n./stm.|  elemental air [le < lē, from the primeval elemental stem “elemental air”. Variant forms: le-, leu (u-modified, see entry leu)]
lehvak  |n.|  air-designation Bohrok [FD: MN#2]
lekha  |vn.|  interaction, conversing; hearing+speech [lekha < leu-ha, nominalized from the verbal complex leu-ha (see entry lu-ha). Variant forms: lukha, also found affixed as -lek]
ler  |n.|  toxicity, poison [ler < lē-ūr, from le “elemental air” and the particle ūr(u) “un-, negative, not”. Variant form: lūr - FD: MN#1]
lerahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “poisonous wild thing; poisoner” [lerahk < ler-rahk, from ler “toxicity, poison” and rahk “wild/untamable thing” - FD: MN#1]
leru  |adj.|  acidic, toxic [leru < lēr-u, from the stem lēr “noxious, toxic; poison(ous)” and the adjectival particle u]†
leso  |adj.|  wandering; lit. “scattering wind” [leso < le-sā, from le “elemental air” and “scattering, consuming” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
lesovikk  |n.cmpd.|   wandering judge [lesovikk < leso-vikk, from leso “wandering” and vikk, an extreme reduction of vahki “judge, law-keeper” (earlier vahiki > vaiki > vīk, vikk)]
leu  |n./stm.|  elemental air; listening/hearing/speaking [Derived from the elemental stem le “elemental air” (see entry) via u-modification. Variant form: lu]
leva  |n.cmpd.|  weather, weather-cycle [leva < le-vā, from le “elemental air” and “time; timeline, progression, schedule, cycle”]
lewa  |n.cmpd.|  open air [lewa < le-wa, from le “elemental air” and wa “wide, great, large”]
le-ya  |v.|  to hear; to receive [From the u-modified elemental stem leu “elemental air; listening/hearing/speaking” and the verbal particle ya. Variant form: lu-ya]†
lhī  |adj.|  virtuous, good, noble; fulfilling-duty/function [etymology uncertain; possibly an extreme reduction lhī < l’hui < li-hā-ui, from the primeval modifying particles li and ui (analogous to u/l-modified elemental stems, perhaps split from an even earlier particle -uil, -ol) and the stem “protection, peace/calm, systems-normal”, yielding a meaning of “functioning well/normally; performing one’s function”]
lhika  |n.|  integrity, uprightness; lit. “power/ability of fulfilling-duty” [lhika < lhī-ka, from lhī “virtuous, good, noble” and ka “power, force, ability”]
lhikan  |n.|  upright one, duty-bound hero [lhikan < lhika-ān, from lhika “integrity, uprightness” and ān “being, individual”]
lho  |n.|  duty; function, assigned purpose [lho < lhī-ō, from lhī “fulfilling-duty/function” and the nounal particle ō]†
lohi  |n.|  cry, screech, scream [lohi < leu-hī, from the u-modified elemental stem leu “elemental air; listening/hearing/speaking” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
lohrak  |n.cmpd.|  screeching menace [lohrak < lohi-rak, from lohi “cry, screech, scream” and rak “menace, scourge”]
lu-ha  |v.|  to interact, interface with; to converse [From the u-modified elemental stem leu “elemental air; listening/hearing/speaking” and the verbal particle ha]†
lui  |adj.|  green [lui < le-ui, from le “elemental air” and the adjectival particle ui. Variant forms: leui, leo]†
lumi  |n.|  greater insight; lit. “increasing perception” [lumi < lu-mi, from the u-modified elemental stem leu “elemental air; listening/hearing/speaking” and mi “up, upward, rising”]
 
-M-
 
-ma  |p.|  verbal particle
madu  |n.|  tree; spire, tower; lit. “extending upward” [madu < mai-du, from mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry) and the particle du “extension, scope, reach; influence”. Variant forms: maidu, midu]
madumei  |n.cmpd.|  canopy; lit. “tree-head” [madumei < madu-mehi, from madu “tree” and mehi “head”]†
maglya  |vn.|  succeeding, advancing; lit. “mastering power/force/ability”  [maglya < makal-ya, from the verbal complex makal-ya “to succeed, advance, master/learn (a) skill”. Variant form: amagli]
ma-ha  |v.|  to ascend/descend, move vertically [From mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry) and the verbal particle ha. Variant form: mai-ha]†
mahi  |n.|  Rahi cattle, beast of burden, lit. “controlled-thing” [mahi < ma(t)-hī, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
mahiki  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) mastery of deception; deception-master [mahiki < ma-hiki, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and hiki2 “trickery, deception”]
mahri  |n.|  ocean, depths; descent/ascent (through water); lit. “violent ascent/descent” [mahri < maha-rī, from ma-ha “to ascend/descend” and   “wild, uncontrolled, violent” (< ra-ui). Variant forms: mahari, maihri, mahrui]
mahri-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great ocean/depths [From mahri “ocean, depths; descent/ascent” and nui “great, significant”]
maiduno  |n.cmpd.|  east (cardinal direction) [maiduno < maidui-no, from maidui “arm” (variant of midui, see entry) and ono “protodermis”. This term patterns traditionally with terms for cardinal directions in that such terms appear to be derived from parts of the body (see entries meno, midouno, uduno). Variant form: meduno]†
maka  |n.|  power distributor; lit. “mastery of power” [maka < ma-ka, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and ka “power, force, energy”. Variant form: maca]
makal-ya  |v.|  to succeed, advance, master/learn (a) skill [makal-ya < ma-kal-ya, from ma(t) “mastery, control”, the modified stem kal “power, force, ability”, and the verbal particle ya]
makani  |n.|  shooting star, comet; lit. “star of/with flying power” [makani < mai-ka-ini, from mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry), ka “power, force, ability”, and ini “star”]
makika, n .cmpd. (Rahi-) croaker, one who croaks; lit. “master of croaking” [makika < ma-kika, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and kika “croaking”]
mako  |n.|  lock, bond; lit. “control of freedom” [mako < ma-kua, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and kua “freedom, independence” (see entry]
makoki  |n.|  (archaic) key; lit. “piece/part of a lock” [makoki < mako-kī, from mako “lock, bond; lit. ‘control of freedom’” and the particle “part, piece, portion of”]
maku  |n.|  light-heartedness, optimism; lit. “upward-sight, looking-up” [maku < māku < mai-aku, from mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry) and aku “sight, vision”. Variant forms: macku, maiaku, mēku]
makuta¹  |n.cmpd.|  1. master of knowledge; 2. higher knowledge [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology is makuta < ma-akuta, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and akuta “knowledge”; another proposed etymology is makuta < mai-akuta, from mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry) and akuta “knowledge”]
makuta²  |n.cmpd.|  master of lesser-spirits [makuta < ma-kuta, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and (u)kuta “lesser spirit, being of lesser rank”. Largely a scholarly term, indicating the hierarchical rank of the Makuta in relation to other beings]
mamru  |n.|  crane/lift-operator, lit. “mastery of suspension” [mamru < ma-mi-ru, from ma(t) “mastery, control”, mi “up, upward, above”, and the particle ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention”]
mana  |n.|  servant, slave; enslavement; lit. “much control” [mana < ma-nā, from ma(t) “master, control” and the plural particle ]
mana-ko  |n.cmpd.|  silent slave [From mana “servant, slave; enslavement” and ko “elemental ice; silence, stillness”]
manas  |n.|  monster, servant of evil; lit. “enslaved spawn” [manas < mana-s, from mana “servant, slave; enslavement” and the Rahi-designation suffix -s]
mangai  |n.|  elite protector [mangai < ma-hā-ngai, from ma(t) “mastery, control”, “protection; peace/calm, safety,  systems-normal”, and ngai “elite”. Variant form: mahangai]
mangaia  |n.|  under-Mangai [mangaia < mangai-au, from mangai (used as a placename, see entry) and the stem au “under, lower, below” (variant of uw, see entry)]
mantax  |n.|  conqueror, subjugator; lit. “spirit of greater-enslavement” [mantax < mana-ta-ak-si, from mana “servant, slave; enslavement”, ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
manu  |adj.|  enslaved, chained [manu < mana-u, from mana “servant, slave; enslavement” and the adjectival particle u]
manutri  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) lit. “chained wings” [manutri < manu-tiri, from manu “enslaved, chained” and tiri “wing, flat appendage”. Applied to the common aquatic species of Rahi-bird, referencing their flightlessness]
marka  |n.|  swimming, treading water [marka < marī-kau, from marī “arm(s)” (a reduced variant of mirui) and kau “free-flowing, breathing” (see entry)]
ma(t)  |n./stm.|  mastery, control; master [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the coeval stems me(t) “upper-part, head; primary system” and atu “mind, will”, as well as the stem mi “up, upward, above” (see entries). Variant form: ma]
mata  |n.|  master of spirits; master-spirit [mata < ma-ta, from ma(t) “mastery, control; master” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
mata-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great master of spirit; great master-spirit [From mata “master of spirit; master spirit” and nui “great, significant”]
matatu  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) mastery of will(power) [matatu < mat-atu, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and atu “mind, will”]
matau  |n.|  (high-)elevation, altitude; lit. “result/essence of upward-movement” [matau < mai-tau, from mai “up, upward, above” (variant of mi, see entry) and the u-modified elemental stem tau “elemental fire; spirit/essence, result-of-process”]
matoro  |n.|  mastery of words, word-master [matoro < mat-oro, from ma(t) “mastery, control; master” and oro “word(s)”]
matoran  |n.|  speakers; lit. “word-master-beings; those who use words” [matoran < matoro-ān, from matoro “word-master” and ān “being, individual”]
mat-ya  |v.|  to master, use [From ma(t) “mastery, control; master” and the verbal particle ya]†
mavrah  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “master of revealed/discovered Rahi” [mavrah < ma-avu-rahi, from ma(t) “mastery, control”, avu “revealed, (newly) discovered”, and rahi “beast, wild thing”]
maxi  |n.|  enforcement, pacification; lit. “more intensive control” [maxi < ma-ak-si, from ma(t) “mastery, control”, the intensive particle ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si]
maxilos  |n.cmpd.|  peacekeeper, security-unit; lit. “unit with enforcement/pacification function” [maxilos < maxi-lo-s, from maxi “enforcement, pacification, peacekeeping”, lo (< lho) “duty, function”, and the affix -s, usually reserved for Rahi-designations]
mazeka  |n.cmpd.|  powerful spy/infiltrator [mazeka < maze-ka, from maze “spy, infiltrator” (variant of mazi, see entry) and ka “power(ful), force, ability”]
mazi  |n.|  spy, infiltrator [mazi < ma-zī, from ma(t) “mastery, control” and the stem (zai, zē) “strategy, planning, scheming”. Variant form: maze]
mehi  |n.|  head; skull [mehi < me-hī, from me(t) “head; mind” and the particle “thing, object, place”. Variant form: mei]†
mehirui  |n.cmpd.|  neck; lit. "head-joint" [mehirui < mehi-rui, from mehi “head; skull” and rui “joint”. Variant form: meirui]†
meno  |n.|  north (cardinal direction) [meno < me-no, from me(t) “head; mind” and no (also ono) “protodermis”. This term patterns traditionally with terms for cardinal directions in that such terms appear to be derived from parts of the body (see entries maiduno, midouno, uduno)]†
me(t)  |n./stm.|  upper-part, head; primary system [etymology uncertain; undoubtedly related to the coeval stems ma(t) “mastery, control” and atu “mind, will”, as well as the stem mi “up, upward, above” (see entries)]
meto  |n.|  mind-brain, mental system [meto < met-ō, from me(t) “head; mind” and the nounal particle ō]†
metu  |adj.|  mental, of the mind [metu < met-u, from me(t) “head; mind” and the adjectival particle u]†
metru  |n.|  city; lit. “oriented toward the head” [metru < met-ru, from the stem me(t) “head; mind” and the particle ru “orientation, intention; oriented toward”. The application of this term to the city of Metru Nui is unclear, although it may pattern along with terms for cardinal directions, which appear to be derived from parts of the body (see entries maiduno, midouno, meno, uduno)]
metru-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great city [From metru “city” and nui “great, significant”]
mi  |adv.|  up, upward, above [mi < mī. Variant forms: mai, mē]
midak  |n.|  lit. “fervently reaching upward” [midak < mid’ak < mi-du-ak, from mi “up, upward, above”, the stem du “extension, scope, reach; influence”, and the intensive particle -ak]
midouno  |n.cmpd.|  west (cardinal direction) [midouno < midui-ono, from midui “arm” and ono “protodermis”. This term patterns traditionally with terms for cardinal directions in that such terms appear to be derived from parts of the body (see entries maiduno, meno, uduno). Variant form: midono]†
midui  |n.|  arm; lit. “upper-limb” [midui < mi-dui, from mi “up, upward, above” and dui “limb, appendage; extension”. Variant forms: medui, maidui]†
midurui  |n.cmpd.|  shoulder; lit. “arm-joint” [midurui < midui-rui, from midui “arm” and rui “joint”]†
mi-ma  |v.|  to rise, levitate [From the stem mi “up, upward, above” and the verbal particle ma. Variant forms: mai-ma, mē-ma]†
miru  |n.|  (Kanohi-) levitation, floating; lit. “upward orientation” [miru < mi-ru, from mi “up, upward, above” and the particle ru “orientation; oriented toward; intention”]
misi  |adj.|  unknown, indistinct; misty, hazy [misi < me-isi, from me(t) “head; mind” and isi “possibility; possible”, yielding a sense of “possible thoughts, unknown thoughts”. Variant forms: meisi, metisi]
miserix  |n.cmpd.|  1. (archaic) high-level command of the mind; 2. mysterious/unknown high-level command [miserix < misi-orix, from misi “unknown, indistinct; misty, hazy” and orix “superior command, upper echelon”. Variant forms: miseryx, meserix]
miso  |n.|  mist, fog, haze [miso < misi-ō, from misi “unknown, indistinct; misty, hazy” and the nounal particle ō]
mistai  |n.|  unknown being, stranger, silhouette; lit. “unknown-spirit, spirit of mist” [mistai < misi-tai, from misi “unknown, indistinct; misty, hazy” and tai (also ) “spirit, being, essence”. Variant forms: misti, misitai]
mistika  |n.cmpd.|  powerful unknown spirit, spirit of mist [mistika < misti-ka, from misti “stranger, silhouette” (variant of mistai, see entry) and ka “power(ful), force, ability”. Variant form: mistaika]
mo  |n.|  plains, broad expanse of land [mo < mō < no-wa, from no (also ono) “protodermis” and the primeval stem wa “wide, great, large” (with final ā > ō vowel shift), yielding a sense of “expanse of protodermis”]
moa  |n.|  desert bird; lit. “from the plains; plains-dweller” [moa < mo-kha < moha, from mo “plains, broad expanse of land” and an extreme reduction of the origin particle ha]
mohi  |n.|  (an) alternate, variant [mohi < mou-hī, from mou “change, variation, difference” (variant of mu(t)) and the particle “thing, object, place”]
mohtrek  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) time-duplication; lit. “guide of alternate(-versions)” [mohtrek < mohi-trē-ak, from mohi “(an) alternate, variant”, the stem trē (< tēr) “guidance, guiding-force”, and the intensive particle -ak]
mora  |adj.|  moody, tempermental [mora < mou-ra, from mou “change, variation, difference” (variant of mu(t)) and ra “wild(ness), untamed”]
morak  |n.|  very tempermental [morak < mora-ak, from mora “moody, tempermental” and the intensive particle -ak]
morbuzakh  |n.cmpd.|  treacherous sentient plant [morbuzakh < mor-bo-u-zakh, from mor “word-usage, sentience”, bo “elemental plant-life”, the adjectival particle u, and the adjectival stem zakh “treacherous”]
motara  |n.cmpd.|  desert, wilderness; hot, barren region [motara < mo-ta-ra, from mo “plains, broad expanse of land”, ta “elemental fire”, and ra “wild(ness), untamed”, yielding a sense of “hot, untamed expanse of land”]
mua  |n.|  Rahi cat/feline [etymology uncertain]
muaka  |n.cmpd.|  powerful Rahi-cat [muaka < mua-ka, from mua “Rahi cat/feline” and ka “power, force, ability”]
mukau  |n.cmpd.|  Rahi-bovine; lit. “mu-breath” [mukau < mu-kau, from an onomatopoeic coinage mu (in imitation of the lowing of bovinous Rahi) and the stem kau “free-flowing, unhindered; breathing”]
mutra  |adj.|  erratic, volatile, unpredictable, eccentric; lit. “wildly changing” [mutra < mut-ra, from the stem mu(t) “change, variation, difference” and ra “wild(ness), untamed”]
mutran  |n.|  eccentric being, maverick; lit. “one who changes wildly” [mutran < mutra-ān, from mutra “erratic, volatile, unpredictable, eccentric” and ān “being”]
mutatu  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) charisma; lit. “change-mind/will” [mutatu < mut-atu, from mu(t) “change, variation, difference” and atu “mind, will” - FD: NM]†
mutru  |n.|  lit. “oriented toward change; process of mutation” [mutru < mut-ru, from mu(t) “change, variation, difference” and ru “orientation; intention; oriented toward” - FD: NM]†
mutu  |adj.|  different, unlike [mutu < mut-u, from mu(t) “change, variation, difference” and the adjectival particle u - FD: NM]†
mutuku  |n.|  emulation; lit. “not-different” [mutuku < mutu-ku, from mutu “different, unlike” and the negative particle -ku - FD: NM]†
 
--------------------
 
Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| - Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”
 


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A Matoran Dictionary - Second Edition - Volume III

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics, Long Entries, Bionicle, Matoran Language, Language and Etymology Aug 21 2013 · 375 views

A Matoran Dictionary

2nd Edition

 

VOLUME III :: K

 
-K-
 
ka  |n./stm.|  (non-elemental) power, force, energy; ability, (creative) potential [ka < kā. Variant form: ca]
kabolo  |n.|  fruit of power [kabolo < ka-bolo, from ka “power, force, ability” and bolo “fruit”. Variant form: cabolo]
kadin  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) flight; lit. “power of high-space” [kadin < ka-ti-ini, from ka “power, force, ability”, the stem ti “space, area” (variant of te, see entry), and ini “star(s); height”]
kahgai  |adj.|  elite, powerful; lit. “immersed in power” [kahgai < kahi-agai, from kahi “power/energy thing” and the modified verbal stem agai  “elemental water; washing, immersion” (see entry ga)]
kahgarak  |n.cmpd.|  elite/powerful menace [kahgarak < kahgai-rak, from kahgai “elite, powerful” and rak “menace, scourge”]
kahu  |n.|  Rahi-bird species (gukko-subspecies) [kahu < kau-huw, from kau “free-flowing, unhindered; flying” and huw “activity, sport”]
kai¹  |n.|  skill, ability [kai < ka-ī, from ka “power, force, ability” and the nounal particle ī]
kai²  |n.|  unity; lit. “unified/combined power, force, ability” [kai < ka-yi, from ka “power, force, ability” and yi “together, combined”. Variant form: ky]
kailani  |n.|  prowess, expertise, high-skill [kailani < kai-la-nī, from kai “skill, ability” (see entry), the particle la “good, excellent”, and the particle , a reduction of nui “great”]
kaita  |n.|  spirit of unified/combined power [kaita < kayi-ta, from kayi “unified/combined power” and ta “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence”]
kaj  |n.|  excavation, quarrying  [kaj < ka-ji, from ka “power, force, ability” and the stem ji “empty/emptied space”]
kakama  |n.|  (Kanohi-) speed; lit. “movement-of-movement” [kakama < ka-kama, from an intensivizing reduplication of the verbal complex ka-ma “to move”]
kal¹  |n./stm.|  action, capability [Stem l-modified from ka “power, force, ability” (see entry)]
kal²  |n.|  seeking power; lit. “detecting/finding/sensing power” [kal < ka-el, from ka “power, force, ability” and el “seeking/searching; detection, sense” - FD: MN#2]
kalama  |n.cmpd.|  highly skilled/capable one; lit. “master of excellent ability”  [kalama < ka-la-ma, from ka “power, force, ability”, the modifying particle -la “good, excellent”, and ma(t) “mastery, control”]
kali  |n.|  ability, capability [kali < kal-ī, from kal¹ “power, force, ability” and the nounal particle ī. Variant form: cali]
kalix  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) greater capability [kalix < kali-ak-si, from kali “ability, capability”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si. Variant form: calix]
kal-ma  |v.|  to act, lead, initiate [From the modified stem kal¹ “power, force, ability” and the verbal particle ma]
kalmah  |n.|  leader, forerunner, figurehead; lit. “thing that acts/is able” [kalmah < kalma-hī, from the verbal complex kal-ma “to act, lead, initiate” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
ka-ma  |v.|  to move [From ka “power, force, ability” and the verbal particle ma]
kame  |n.|  finesse, increasing skill/ability [kame < ka-me, from ka “power, skill, ability” and “up, upward, rising” (variant of mi, see entry)]
kamen  |n.|  apprentice, learner; lit. “one who increases in skill/ability” [kame-ān, from kame “finesse, increasing skill/ability” and ān “being, individual”]
kanae  |n.|  harshly proliferating [kanae < ki-anae, from the stem ki “sharpness, harshness, biting” (variant of khi) and anae “multiplying, proliferation”. Largely a Le-Matoran dialectal term, applied to large bodies of water, in reference to choppy (“harsh”) waves]
kane  |n.|  Rahi-bull [etymology uncertain]
kane-ra  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) lit. “wild bull” [From kane “Rahi-bull” and ra “wild(ness), untamed”]

kano  |n.|  forged mask of power [kano < kanohi, a reduced form of older kanohi “mask of power” (see entry), also found further reduced as an affix -kan(o)]
kanohi  |n.cmpd.|  mask of power [kanohi < ka-nohi, from ka "power, force, ability" and nohi “face; mask”]
kanoka  |n.cmpd.|  disk of power [kanoka < ka-noka, from ka "power, force, ability" and noka “disk; powerful protodermic object”]
kantai  |n.cmpd.|   power of enlightenment [kantai < ka-antai, from ka “power, force, ability” and antai “enlightenment”]
kao  |n.|  power, energy [kao < ka-ō, from ka “power, force, ability” and the nounal particle ō. Variant forms: kō, cō]
kapura  |n.cmpd.|  wise and powerful friend [kapura < ka-pu-rua, from ka “power(ful), force, ability”, pu “friend, ally”, and rua “contemplation, stillness, wisdom”]
kar  |n./stm.cmpd.|  1. (archaic) application of power/energy; 2. (modern) application of power against (something), repulsion, rejection, subjugation; 3. (modern) resistance, resisting/repulsing; shell, barrier [kar < ka-ār, from ka “power, force, ability” and the particle ār “applied, application of; applied against, resistance, hindering”. Variant forms: kara, cara, kera, kra, kre - FD: MN#4]
karapar  |n.cmpd.|  stubbornness; lit. “strong/robust resistance (shell)” [karapar < kara-par, from the stem-compound kara “resistance, resisting/repulsing; shell, barrier” (variant of kar, see entry) and the stem-compound par “strong, stolid, robust; strengthened, made strong”. Variant form: carapar - FD: MN#4]
karda  |n.|  heart, core, engine; lit. “ordered/rhythmic application of power” [karda < kar-da, from the stem-compound kar “application of power/energy” and da “authority; order”]
karda-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great heart/engine [From karda “heart, core, engine” and nui “great, significant”]
kardas  |n.| (Rahi-) lit. “engine-Rahi” [kardas < karda-s, from karda “heart, core, engine” and the Rahi-designation affix -s]
kar-ya  |v.|  to exert, apply power/force [From the stem-compound kar “application of power/energy” and the verbal particle ya]†
karzahni  |n.cmpd.|  1. (archaic) lit. “one who applies power according to plan/strategy”; 2. (modern) anomaly, enemy, error; lit. “one who rejects plan/strategy” [karzahni < kar-zahi-ni, from the stem-compound kar “application of power/energy” (see entry), zahi “plan, schematic, strategy”, and the particle ni “one who...” - FD: MN#4]
kau  1.  |n./stm.|  breath; breathing; 2.  |adj.|  free-flowing, unhindered; flying [etymology uncertain; possibly kau < k-wa-u, from the split-particle (u)ku (k...u) “middle, in the midst of” and the stem wa “wide, great, large”, yielding an original sense of “out/in the middle of wide/open space”. Variant forms: ko, ku, ka]
kaukau  |n.|  (Kanohi-) water-breathing; lit. “breath-of-breath” [From an intensivizing reduplication of kau “breath; breathing” (see entry)]
kau-ya  |v.|  to move freely, fly, swim [From kau “free-flowing, unhindered” (see entry) and the verbal particle ya]
kava  |adj.|  rapid, rushing, breathless; lit. “time of (a) breath” [kava < kau-vā, from kau “free-flowing, breathing” and “time”]
kavinika  |n.cmpd.|  Rahi-canine [kavinika < kava-ini-kau, from kava “rapid, rushing, breathless”, ini “star(s)” and kau “free-flowing; breathing; howling” (see entry), yielding a sense of “breathless star-howler”, in reference to the nocturnal behavior of kavinika]
ka-ya  |v.|  to empower, energize [From ka “power, force, ability” and the verbal particle ya]
kazi  |n.cmpd.|  strategic ability [kazi < ka-zī, from ka “power, force, ability” and (zai, zē) “strategy, planning, scheming”]
kē  |n.|  whole(ness); regeneration, restoration [kē < kī-yi, from the particle “part, piece, portion of” and yi “together, combined”]
kea  |n.|  Rahi-shark/marine predator [etymology unknown]
keahi  |n.|  tooth, fin; lit. “shark-thing” [keahi < kea-hī, from kea “Rahi-shark” and the particle “thing, object, place”]
keke  |n.|  bush, shrub [etymology uncertain; possibly from a reduplication of boki “leaf” (see entry): boki-boki “many leaves” > bokiki > keke]
kēlerak  |n.cmpd.|  shrieking/screaming menace [kēlerak < kē-le-rak, from “sharp, biting/gnawing”, le “elemental air”, and rak “menace, scourge”]
kērakh  |n.cmpd.|  harsh-command-Vahki [kērakh < -oro-akh, from “sharp, biting/gnawing” (variant of khiu, see entry), oro “word, unit of communciation”, and the Vahki-designation affix -akh (reanalyzed from the older Vahki-designation terms, see entries bord-akh, rorz-akh, vorz-akh, zad-akh) - FD: MN#3]
keras  |n.|  Rahi-crab; lit. “shell-spawn” [keras < kera-s, from the stem kera “resistance, resisting/repulsing; shell, barrier” (variant of kar, see entry) and the Rahi-designation suffix -s - FD: MN#4]
kēto  |n.|  healer, lit. “spirit of regeneration” [kēto < kē-tā, from “whole(ness); regeneration, restoration” and “elemental fire; spirit, being, essence” (with final ā > ō vowel shift)]
kētongu  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “last of healers” [kētongu < kēto-ngu, from kēto “healer” and ngu “last, final; alone”]
khiara  |n.|  chain-lightning; lit. “wild(ly) stabbing” [khiara < khiya-ra, from khi-ya “to cut, stab” and ra “wild(ness), untamed”. Variant form: chiara]
khirox  |n.|  lit. “many more teeth” [khirox < khiru-ak-si, from khiru (variant of kiru, see entry) “tooth, tusk”, the intensive particle -ak, and the comparative adjectival particle si. Variant forms: khirux, chirox]
khiu  |adj.|  sharp, biting/gnawing [khiu < khi-u, from the stem khi “sharpness, harshness, biting” and the adjectival particle u. Variant forms: khu, chiu, kē]
khi-ya  |v.|  to cut, stab [From the stem khi “sharpness, harshness, biting” and the verbal particle ya. Variant form: chi-ya]
  |p.|  part, piece, portion (of)
kika  |n.|  (a) croak; croaking [From an onomatopoeic coinage kika, in imitation of the croaking of the makika Rahi-toad (see entry makika)]
kikanalo  |n.cmpd.|  strength in numbers; lit. “group (made up) of powerful parts” [kikanalo < ki-ka-nalo, from the particle “part, piece, portion of”, kai “power(ful), force, ability”, and nalo “group, collection, herd”]
kini  |n.|  temple; lit. “great part, significant part” [kini < kī-nī, from the particle “part, piece, portion of” and the particle , a reduction of nui “great, significant”]
kini-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great temple [From kini “temple” (see entry) and nui “great, significant”]
kinloka  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) powerful biting/gnawing horde [kinloka < ki-nalo-ka, from the stem ki “sharpness, harshness, biting” (variant of khiu, see entry) and nalo “group, collection, herd”, and ka “power(ful), force, ability”. Variant forms: kinaloka, khinloka, khinaloka]
kirik  |n.|  chirp, chirping; chirping insect [From an onomatopoeic coinage kirik, imitating the sound of the kirikori Rahi-insect (see entry kirikori)]
kirikori  |n.cmpd.|  Rahi-insect; lit. “creature communicating with chirps” [kirikori < kirik-or-ī, from kirik “chirp, chirping”, or “word, unit of communciation” (variant of oro, see entry), and the nounal particle ī]
kirikori-nui  |n.cmpd.|  great kirikori [From kirikori “Rahi-insect” and nui “great, significant”]
kiril  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) regeneration, restoration; lit. “oriented toward wholeness/restoration” [kiril < kē-ril, from “whole(ness); regeneration, restoration” and the modified stem ril (< ru-li) “orientation; oriented toward; intention”. Variant form: keril]
kiro  |adj.|  bounded, within an edge/boundary [kiro < ki-rho-o, from the split-particle oki (ki...o) “in/on/at; during (basic locative)” and the stem rho “line, edge, boundary”]
kirop  |n.|  soothing/restorative speaker [kirop < kē-oropi, from “whole(ness); regeneration, restoration” and oropi “word-creature, speaker”]
kiru  |n.|  tusk, tooth; jaw [etymology uncertain; possibly kiru < ki-rui from ki “sharp, biting/gnawing” (variant of khiu, see entry) and rui “joint; oriented thing”. Variant forms: khiru, chiru]
kivi  |n.|  detail, facet [kivi < kī-fi, from the particle “part, piece, portion of” and fi ”subtle, fine, cunning; web”, yielding a sense of “subtle part”]
ko  |n./stm.|  1. elemental ice; 2. stillness, silence; clarity, focus; 3. icy, stern [ko < kō, from the primeval elemental stem “elemental ice”. Variant forms: ko-, koul/kul/kyl (u/l-modified)]
koda  |n.|  determination, resolve [koda < kau-da, from kau “free-flowing, unhindered; flying” (see entry) and da “authority, order”. Variant form: kauda]
kodan  |n.|  determined one [kodan < koda-ān, from koda “determination, resolve” and ān “being, individual”]
kodrex  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “highest authority/control of power” [kodrex < kō-drex, from “power, energy” (variant of kao, see entry) and drex “high command; highest authority” (variant of darex). Variant form: codrex]
kofo  |adj.|  small, little [kofo < kau-fā, from kau “free-flowing, breathing” (see entry) and fā(n) “limit, barrier, restriction; roof/ceiling, sky” (with final ā > ō vowel shift), yielding an original sense of “limit of/restriction on free movement”, eventually shifting toward “small space/range of movement” and repurposed as an adjectival modifier. Variant forms: kofa/kova; -k'fa > -fa, -va (heavily reduced, affixal)]
kofo-jaga  |n.cmpd.|  small Rahi-scorpion [From kofo “small, little”, and jaga “Rahi-scorpion”]
kohrak  |n.|  ice-designation Bohrok [FD: MN#2]
koi  |adj.|  white [koi < ko-ui, from the elemental stem ko “elemental ice” and the adjectival particle ui; Variant form: koui]†
kojol  |n.cmpd.|  icy/stern tactician [kojol < ko-jola, from ko “elemental ice; icy, stern” and jola “excellent strategy” (variant of jala, see entry)]
koki  |n.|  snowflake [koki < ko-kī, from ko “elemental ice” and the particle “part, piece, portion of”. Also found in an intensivized form kiki (also kokiki), see entries boki, keke for a parallel development]
kokkan  |n.|  lover of snowflakes; lit. “snowflake-being” [kokkan < kokiki-ān, from kokiki “(many) snowflakes” (intensivized variant of koki, see entry) and ān “being, individual”]
kolhii  |n.|  game of koli [koli-hui, from koli “free-flowing, running; a Matoran sport” and , a reduction of hui “sport, game, activity”]
koli  |adj./n.|  free-flowing, running; a Matoran sport [koli < kau-li, from kau “free-flowing, breathing” (see entry) and the primeval modifying particle li]
komau  |n.|  (Kanohi-) mind control [komau < ko-ma-u, from the split-particle uko (ko...u) “outside, external (locative)” and ma(t) “mastery, control” - FD: NM]
kongu  |n.|  solo-flight [kongu < kau-ngu, from kau “free-flowing, breathing; flying” and ngu “last, final; alone”. Variant forms: kaungu, koungu]
kopaka  |n.cmpd.|  strength of ice [kopaka < ko-paka, from ko “elemental ice” and paka “strength”]
kopeke  |n.cmpd.|  1. ice-carving; carver of ice; 2. silent carver [kopeke < ko-peke, from ko “elemental ice; stillness, silence” and peke “carving; carver”]
kopen  |n.cmpd.|  Rahi-wasp; lit. “flying carver” [kopen < kua-pen, from kua “flying thing” (see entry) and pen “carver”. Variant form: kuapen]
kordak  |n.cmpd.|  desolation, destruction; lit. “powerful repulsion/explosion” [kordak < kardu-ak, from the stem-compound kar “resistance, resisting/repulsing; shell, barrier”, du “extension, scope, reach; influence”, and the intensive particle -ak. Variant form: cordak]
koro  |n.|  village, town, settlement defined by borders [koro < kar-rhō, from the stem-compound kar “resistance, resisting/repulsing; shell, barrier” and the stem rhō “ring, boundary, edge”, yielding a meaning of “edge/boundary of resistance” with reference to the outlying borders of early Matoran settlements, which were frequently delimited by walls or barriers. Variant forms: korro, karo]
kotini  |n.|  glacier [kotini < ko-ti-nī, from ko “elemental ice”, ti “space, area”, and , a reduction of nui “great, significant”]
kotu  |n.|  icicle [kotu < ko-tu, from ko “elemental ice” and tu (< du) “extension, scope, reach; influence”]
krā  |n./stm.|  elemental shadow [From the primeval elemental stem krā “elemental shadow”]
krāhi  |n.|  (a) shadow; darkness, gloom [krāhi < krā-hī, from krā “elemental shadow” and the particle “thing, object, place”]†
krahka  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) power in shadow/gloom [krahka < krāhi-ka, from krāhi “shadow, gloom” and ka “power, force, ability”]
krāhkan  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) Mask of Shadows [mult. potential etymologies; one proposed etymology is krāhkan < krā-hiki-ān, from krā “elemental shadow”, hiki¹ “part/piece/portion of (something]; measurement”, and ān “being, individual”, yielding a meaning of “measurement of (one’s) shadow”; another proposed etymology is krāhkan < krāhi-kan(o), from krāhi “(a) shadow; darkness, gloom” and an affixed form of kano “forged mask of power” (see entry), yielding a (somewhat straightforward) meaning of “mask of shadows/darkness”]
krāhu  |n.|  lit. “shadowy activity” [krāhu < krā-huw, from krā “elemental shadow” and huw “activity, sport”]
krakua  |n.cmpd.|  shadow-bird, night-singing bird [etymology uncertain; one proposed etymology is krakua < krā-kua, from krā “elemental shadow” and kua “bird, flying thing” (see entry)]
kralhi  |adj.cmpd.|  clandestine, surreptitious; lit. “fulfilling duty/function in the shadows” [kralhi < krā-lhi, from krā “elemental shadow” and lhi “fulfilling duty/function”]
krana  |n.|  hive, hive-mind; lit. “many subjugations” [krana < kra-nā, from kra “subjugation; application of power against (something)” (variant of kar, see entry) and the plural particle ]
kranua  |n.|  lit. “hidden in shadow” [kranua < krā-nua, from krā “elemental shadow” and nua “hidden, unseen, secret”]
krast  |n.cmpd.|  (Kanohi-) repulsion, rejection; lit. “driving out via repulsion” [krast < krā-sta, from kra “resistance, repulsion” (variant of kar, see entry) and the stem sta “scattering, consuming, driving out” (< sā-ta). Variant form: crast - FD: MN#4]
krāta  |n.|  spirit of shadow [krāta < krā-ta, from krā "elemental shadow" ta "elemental fire; spirit, being, essence"]
krāwa  |n.|  (Rahi-) lit. “large shadow” [krāwa < krā-wa, from krā “elemental shadow” and the stem wa “wide, great, large”. Coined as the name of a dangerous Rahi encountered in Metru Nui with the ability to dramatically increase its size by absorbing kinetic energy]
krekka  |n.cmpd.|  extremely resistant force [krekka < krē-ak-ka, from kre “resistance, repulsion” (variant of kar, see entry), the intensive particle -ak, and ka “power, force, ability”. Variant form: krakka - FD: MN#4]
krika  |n.cmpd.|  powerful insect [krika < kirik-ka, from kirik “chirp, chirping; chirping insect” and ka “power(ful), force, ability”]
krom  |n.cmpd.|  lesser-master; lit. “master-within-boundaries” [krom < kiro-ma, from kiro “bounded; within an edge/boundary” and ma(t) “mastery, control”. Variant forms: kroma, kromata, kiro-mata - FD: MN#6]
kua  1.  |n.|  bird, flying thing; freedom, independence; 2.  |adj.|  liberated, independent; free-flowing, flying, leaping [etymology uncertain; possibly kua < ku-wa, from the particle (u)ku “middle, in the midst of” and the stem wa “wide, great, large”, yielding an original sense of “out/in the middle of wide/open space”. Variant forms: ko, ku, ka, kual (l-modified)]
kualsi  |n.cmpd.|  teleportation, quick-travel; lit. “flying/leaping between possibilities” [kualsi < kual-isi, from kual “free-flowing, flying, leaping” (l-modified form of kua, see entry) and isi “possible; possibilities”]
kualus  |n.cmpd.|  converser with birds [kualus < kua-lu-s, from kua “bird, flying thing” (see entry), the u-modified elemental stem leu “elemental air; listening/hearing/speaking”, and the affix -s, usually reserved for Rahi-designations]
kuma  |n.|  Rahi-rodent; lit. “master of biting/gnawing” [kuma < kiu-ma, from kiu “sharp, biting/gnawing” (variant of khiu, see entry) and ma(t) “mastery, control”. Applied to a common variant of the kinloka species of Rahi-rodent]
kuma-nui  |n.cmpd.|  (Rahi-) great kuma [From kuma “Rahi-rodent” and nui “great, significant”]
kume-ha  |v.|  to hone, sharpen [kume-ha < ku-mē-ha, from ku “sharp, biting/gnawing” (variant of khiu),   “up, upward; rising/increasing” (variant of mi, see entry), and the verbal particle ha]
kumo  |n.|  refinement, sharpening, honing [kumo < ku-mē-ō, from ku “sharp, biting/gnawing” (variant of khiu), “up, upward; rising/increasing” (variant of mi, see entry), and the nounal particle ō]
kumu  |adj.|  partly-changed; lit. “in the middle of change” [kumu < ku-mu, from the primeval particle (u)ku “middle, in the midst (of)” and the stem mu “change, variation, difference”]
kuna  |n.|  Rahi-snake; lit. “much twisting/turning/slithering” [kuna < kau-nā, from kau “free-flowing, breathing” and the plural particle ]
kur  |n.|  anger, rage [kur < ko-ūr, from ko “elemental ice” and the particle ūr(u) “un-, negative, not”. Variant form: kour - FD: MN#1]
kurahk  |n.cmpd.|  lit. “raging wild thing” [kurahk < kur-rahk, from kur “anger, rage” and rahk “wild/untamable thing” - FD: MN#1]
kuru  |adj.|  angry, enraged [kuru < kur-u, from kur “anger, rage” and the adjectival particle u]†
kuru-ha  |v.|  to rage, become angry [From the stem kūr(u) “anger, rage” and the verbal particle ha]†
kyl-ma  |v.|  to freeze, frost over [From the u/l-modified elemental stem kyl (< koul) “elemental ice” and the verbal particle ma. Variant forms: koul-ma, kul-ma]
kylma  |vn.|  deep-freeze, freezing, frosting over [From the verbal complex kyl-ma “to freeze, frost over”. Variant forms: koulma, kulma]
kyrehx  |n.cmpd.|  unified power of community [kyrehx < ky-rehix, from ky “unity; lit. ‘unified power’” (variant of kai, see entry) and rehix “community”]
 
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Key:
|adj.| - Adjective
|adj.cmpd.| - Adjective Compound
|adv.| - Adverb
|aff.| - Affix
|n.| - Noun
|n.cmpd.| - Noun Compound
|p.| - Particle
|p.cmpd.| - Particle Compound
|pro.| - Pronoun
|stm.| - Stem
|v.| - Verb
|vn.| - Verbal Noun
|vn.cmpd.| Verbal Noun Compound
 
Some entries are marked with FD “Further Discussion”, followed by a reference to a blog entry containing more explanatory content related to that etymology. The references are as follows:

NM - “Nameless Masks”

MN#1-X... - “Meaningless Names #1-X...”
LM#1-X - “Learning Matoran, Lesson 1-X...”






Chapter I

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"Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat: it was a blog-hole, and that means comfort."

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A Short Bio of the...Author?

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The author of this blog currently resides in the rather dry, bare, sandy climate of the southwest United States. He is a graduate student and teaching associate at his university, currently working toward a Ph.D. in Rhetoric, Composition, and Linguistics.

His primary interests include such -ologies as mythology, philology, etymology, syntax, and phonology, along with a healthy passion for historical linguistics binding all these bewildering fields together. Some less academic hobbies include reading classical literature and mythology, high and epic fantasy, science fiction, and the occasional Tolkien biography, as well as attempting (and mostly failing) to write fiction modeled after these genres.

In addition to these things, he also harbors the deep-set enjoyment of the Bionicle sets and storyline essential to any hapless LEGO geek who has made the decision to become a member of the BZPower community. Without it, he obviously wouldn't be here writing this, and you wouldn't be reading it. This fact is, in part, what inspired his lasting interest in the art of pixeling, a skill that he apparently isn't all that bad at, although you might never know it, seeing as his severe lack of motivation and excess of procrastination usually prevents him from producing anything much at all.
 

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= Some Writings =

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Unknowledge [Review] - (Epic) Finalist in Epics Contest #7: Murder Mysteries. Unknowledge centers around the mysterious death of Toa Moihu and ensuing investigation by Toa Ros, interwoven with the quest to uncover the reality behind the dark nature of the Dedh-See Scroll. Ultimately, the truth that Ros discovers and is forced to confront may be darker than anyone could have imagined.

Judgement [Review] - (Epic) Judgement opens with a death sentence pronounced upon Toa Jor, watch-Toa of Metru Nui. It then follows the events leading up to this shocking scene, with the arrival of Toa Jovan, bearing grave news concerning the fate of the universe itself, as well as a plan to stop it.

Windows Through the Void [Review] - (Epic) Windows is a serial inspired by the old online serials of Bioniclestory.com. Serial 1 follows Takanuva, Toa of Light, as he journeys across the void to a world of dark trees and night, only to find that he must accomplish another task before his original quest can be completed.

The Time - (SS) A semi-mythic account of the origin of Avan, the first Matoran, in the Time Before Time--the Time of the Great Beings.

Despair - (SS) 1st Place winner of the 2010 Library Summer Olympics (SS category). "Despair" is a prequel to the epic Unknowledge, beginning with the arrival of a mysterious Toa in the city of Moa, deep within the Waste. His motives are unknown, as the nature of the dark Kanohi he wears. But the subsequent arrival of Toa Ros soon sets things in motion, leading up to an epic confrontation between hope and despair.

Dust - (SS) The Dark Hunter Devastator returns to Karzahni, his native land. He must find the Matoran called the Builder and retrieve a stolen tablet, but along the way his encounters with the crazed, broken Matoran and the dreaded Karzahni himself provide him with a sliver of new perspective in this land of dust and living death.

A Storm is Coming - (SS) Entrant in the (now stalled) Lesovikk's Hiatus contest. It tells the tale of Toa Lesovikk's three-day battle with a Rock Lion in a strange land where it never rains and the encounter he has there with the castaway Toa Jovan. Can Lesovikk find the strength to finish his task, or will the memories of his past defeat him? A storm is about to break.

Remember [Archive] - (SS) The Mountains of the Matoran are a strange place, but even stranger are the discoveries to be made within them. Two Agori venture deep into the heart of the mountains, and soon their plight becomes a struggle for survival as they try to escape the strange corridors of this dark place. But at the end of their journey lies a revelation more shocking than they could ever have imagined.

The Coming of the Toa - (SS) 3rd place Judges' Choice winner of Short Stories Contest #8. A glimpse into an alternate history of Bionicle, where something has gone terribly wrong. Kua seeks to discover what it is that the Matoran have lost, the darkness in their past. But can even he resist the power of the darkness that lies beneath?

The End - (SS) Nga-Ro has waited for so long in the darkness and cold of the ruined city. He has forgotten much. But now...even he must find the strength to resist the darkness of death and remember his duty. For the end has come...

The Sight - (SS) 1st place winner in the 2012 Flash Fiction Marathon (Visions Category).

The Power - (SS) 1st place winner of the 2012 Library Summer Olympics: Artistic Gymnastics Reimagine (Bionicle category).

Once Whole - (SS)

Hue #1471 - (SS)
 
Looming - (SS)

 
Static [Review] - (Co-authored Epic, OTC) Gold medalist in the 2012 Library Summer Olympics: Epics Unlimited Prompt Relay. Co-authored with Grant-Sud Rises, Velox, and Legolover-361.

Ever Up - (SS, OTC)

Long Day - (SS, OTC)
 
Beyond the Ridge of Tears - (SS, OTC)
 
The Trumpet Sounds - (SS, Blog)



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