# In a hole in the ground there lived...

## Learning Matoran: Lesson 8

Posted by Tolkien , in Matoran Language, Long Entries, linguistics, Language and Etymology, Bionicle Feb 25 2013 · 178 views

LEARNING MATORAN

- LESSON 8 -

I. Objective Particles:

You have already encountered the subject, basic objective, and possessive particles in previous lessons, but there are many particles that remain to be discussed. The particles discussed in this lesson can also be classified as objective particles, but, in contrast to the basic objective particle, they provide information on the spatial and temporal positioning of a noun, as well as on nature of the action denoted by the verb. Six particles will be discussed in this lesson, and these can be organized into two series of three particles each: The first three are “locative” in nature, while the last three deal with concepts such as the endpoint, origin, and transition/path of an action.

Ia. The Basic Locative Particle.

The basic locative particle specifies a position spatially in/at/on or temporally during the noun with which it is paired. The exact interpretation (i.e. temporal or spatial) is up to the context and the denotation of the noun itself.

The basic form of the particle is two-fold, depending on its placement with respect to the noun. Recall from the previous lesson the discussion of “variable placement” with the possessive particle: wa(i) before the noun, but ui/u’i after the noun. The basic locative particle exhibits a very similar case of variable placement, although it is more analogous to the variable placement of the verbal particle ya, which can be “split” into a- and -i (see Lesson 6, section I.).

To begin, the basic form of the particle is oki when it is placed after the noun. This particle can be “split” into a particle ki or ke (interchangeable) which is displaced before the stem, and a particle ō  which remains after the stem. A few examples will be useful to illustrate the variation (the particle ō can vary with ou, particularly if it follows a vowel):

1) a. matoran-oki  OR ki-matoran-ō, ke-matoran-ō   “in/on/at the Matoran”
b. wahi-oki OR ki-wahi-ou, ke-wahi-ou   “in/at the Wahi”
c. aval-oki OR ki-aval-ō, ke-aval-ō   “in/during the time/period” (aval “time, period (of time)”)

IIb. The Ante-Locative Particle.

The ante-locative particle specifies a position temporally before/preceding/prior to or spatially behind/on the other side of the noun with which it is paired. The exact interpretation (i.e. temporal or spatial) is up to the context and the denotation of the noun itself.

The basic form of the particle is oki or okī (interchangeable) and it is always placed before the noun. Additionally, the o- of the particle can optionally be dropped (oki > ki, okī > kī). Note that the basic form of this particle is identical to that of the previous particle except for its position with respect to the noun.

2) a. (o)ki-nuyo, (o)kī-nuyo   “behind/on the other side of the mountain”
b. (o)ki-matoran, (o)kī-matoran   “behind/on the other side of the Matoran”
c. (o)ki-azal, (o)kī-azal   “before/prior to the attack”

IIc. The Post-Locative Particle.

The post-locative particle specifies a position temporally after/subsequent to or spatially after/in front of/on this side of the noun with which it is paired. The exact interpretation (i.e. temporal or spatial) is up to the context and the denotation of the noun itself.

The basic form of the particle is hi, and it is always placed after the noun.

There are a few variations in the form of the particle, depending on the form of the stem: If the stem ends in a short vowel, hi is strengthened to khi (hoto-hi > hotokhi). If the stem ends in a long vowel, hi becomes gi (kolhī-hi > kolhīgi). If the stem ends in a consonant, hi becomes ki (brakas-hi > brakaski), unless the consonant is n, in which case hi becomes gi (matoran-hi > matorangi).

In addition, there is some variability that is the consequence of etymological developments in noun stems. For example, if a noun stem ends in a long vowel, the particle would usually become gi (kolhī-hi > kolhīgi). Historically, many noun stems ended in long vowels which have since shortened, leading to variation between the khi and gi forms of the particle. One common example involves the derivational nounal particle hi (as in wa-hi, kano-hi, etc.), which has been shortened from older . As a result, the form of the post-locative particle when it is attached to such stems frequently varies between khi and gi: wahikhi vs. wahigi, kanohikhi vs. kanohigi, etc.

3) a. ihnu-khi   “in front of/on this side of the hill” (ihnu “hill”)
b. matoran-gi   in front of/on this side of the Matoran”
c. daika-khi   “after/subsequent to the music” (daika “music, notes”)
d. azal-ki   after/subsequent to the attack”

IId. The Endpoint Particle.

The endpoint particle specifies that the noun with which it is paired is the endpoint of the action of the verb. It will usually be translated into English as “to”. Depending on the context and the denotations of the noun and verb, an endpoint can manifest in many different ways. For example, with a verb expressing some kind of movement, the endpoint could be expressed as the location to which the subject moves (“Kopaka went to Ko-Koro.”). Conversely, with a verb expressing an event where the subject affects an object in some way, the endpoint could be the person or location at which the object ends up (“Tahu gave the mask to Gali.”). Additionally, there is an interplay between this particle and the basic locative particle discussed above, particularly with verbs expressing the latter situation. This interplay will be noted in a later lesson.

The basic form of the particle is ī or ih, and it is always placed before the noun. The ī form is usually used before a stem beginning in a consonant (ī-matoran), while the ih form is used when a stem begins with a vowel (ih-akaku).

4) a. ī-metru   “to/toward the city”
b. ī-matoran   “to/toward the Matoran”
c. ihazal   “to/toward the attack”

IIe. The Origin Particle.

The origin particle specifies that the noun with which it is paired is the origin-point of the action of the verb. It will usually be translated into English as “from” or “out of”. Depending on the context and the denotations of the noun and verb, an endpoint can manifest in many different ways. For example, with a verb expressing some kind of movement, the endpoint could be expressed as the location from/out of which the subject moves (“Kopaka came from Ko-Koro.”). Conversely, with a verb expressing an event where the subject affects an object in some way, the endpoint could be the person or location from which the object originates (“Tahu took the mask from Gali.”). Additionally, as with the other particles, there is an interplay between this particle and the other objective particles, particularly with verbs expressing the latter situation. This interplay will be examined in a later lesson.

The basic form of the particle is ha, and it is always placed after the noun.

There are a few variations in the form of the particle, depending on the form of the stem (note that these variations mirror the variations exhibited by the posterior-position particle hi): If the stem ends in a short vowel, ha is strengthened to kha (hoto-ha > hotokha). If the stem ends in a long vowel, ha becomes ga (kolhī-ha > kolhīga). If the stem ends in a consonant, ha becomes ka (brakas-ha > brakaska), unless the consonant is n, in which case ha becomes ga, frequently strengthened to , from earlier * (matoran-ha > matoranga, matorangō)

In addition, just as with the post-locative particle hi, there is a degree of variability that is the consequence of etymological developments in noun stems. For example, if a noun stem ends in a long vowel, the particle would usually become ga (kolhī-ha > kolhīga). Historically, many noun stems ended in long vowels which have since shortened, leading to variation between the kha and ga forms of the particle. One common example involves the derivational nounal particle hi (as in wa-hi, kano-hi, etc.), which has been shortened from older . As a result, the form of the post-locative particle when it is attached to such stems frequently varies between kha and ga: wahikha vs. wahiga, kanohikha vs. kanohiga, etc.

5) a. ihnu-kha   “from/away from/out of the hill”
b. matoran-ga, matoran-gō   from/away from the Matoran”
c. metru-kha   “from/away from/out of the city”
d. azal-ka   from/away from the attack”

IIf. The Transitional-Instrumental Particle.

The transitional-instrumental particle specifies that the noun with which it is paired is the path, transition, or instrument by which the action of the verb progresses. It will usually be translated into English as “through” or “by” or “with”. Depending on the context and the denotations of the noun and verb, a path/transition meaning can manifest in many different ways. For example, with a verb expressing some kind of spatial movement, the transition could be expressed as the location through or by means of which the subject moves (“Kopaka came/went through Ko-Koro.”). Conversely, with a verb expressing an event where the subject affects an object in some way, the transition could be expressed as the instrument through or by means of which the object is affected (“Tahu attacked the Rahi with his sword.”). Additionally, as with the other particles, there is an interplay between this particle and the other objective particles, particularly with verbs expressing this latter instrumental situation. This interplay will be examined in a later lesson.

Mirroring the basic locative particle, the basic form of the transitional particle is two-fold, depending on its placement with respect to the noun (“variable placement”). To begin, the basic form of the particle when it is placed after the noun is amu when the stem ends in a consonant and mu when the stem ends in a vowel. This particle can be “split” into a particle u or ou (interchangeable) which is displaced before the stem, and a particle ma (with a truncated variant -n) which remains after the stem. A few examples will be useful to illustrate the variation:

6) a. matoran-amu OR (o)u-matoran-ma   through/by the Matoran”
b. wahi-amu OR (o)u-wahi-ma, (o)u-wahi-n   “through/by the Wahi”
c. azal-amu OR (o)u-azal-ma   “through/with the attack”
d. onoto-amu OR (o)u-onoto-ma, (o)u-onoto-n   by/with the tool”

## Learning Matoran: Lesson 7

Posted by Tolkien , in Matoran Language, Long Entries, linguistics, Language and Etymology, Bionicle Feb 18 2013 · 97 views

LEARNING MATORAN
- LESSON 7 -

We’re back! Might as well jump right in. This lesson, we’ll be looking at some aspects of the paradigms for nouns and pronouns. It's fun! I promise.

I. Nouns and Pronouns: Overview.

As you may have guessed, nouns in Matoran are a bit different from typical English nouns. Just like verbs, they are generally made up of a stem and they may take a variety of particles expressing different relationships between the noun and other elements (verbs, other nouns, etc.) in the sentence. Unlike verbs, however, nouns in Matoran do not take a dedicated set of particles in the same way as verbs. For example, many nouns are simply stems in their own right, while all verb-stems must be paired with a verbal particle. Nominal particles do exist, of course, and some of them function in similarly to verbal particles, i.e. indicating that the stem with which they are paired is of the category “noun”, rather than some other category. Such particles would technically be referred to as “derivational”, and they contrast with the “functional” particles that are more abundant for nouns. These functional particles will be the primary subject of the following discussions. In this respect, verbal particles are both derivational and functional: they indicate that the stem is a verb, in addition to encoding functional content such as Tense. In contrast, nominal particles are mostly functional, encoding content such as “subject”, “object”, “possessor”, etc. Regardless, as in the case of verbs, the combination of stem+particle will be referred to as the nominal complex when necessary.

Pronouns follow the same paradigms as nouns, although they are, in many respects, more irregular. Originally, pronouns took nominal particles identically to nouns, and they therefore encoded the same functional content (“object”, “possessor” etc.). With time, however, pronoun+particle sequences merged drastically, such that, in current stages of Matoran, they form single units.

We will begin with a discussion of the subject forms of pronouns (the simplest paradigm) before moving on to a discussion of the paradigms for a few of the essential nominal particles, a complete discussion of the other (more complicated) paradigms being delayed until later.

II. Pronouns: Subject Forms.

Before we get to a discussion of particles and the nominal complex, we’ll start off with some simple things. For this section, all you need worry about are the subject forms of pronouns (these were called “nominative” in previous lessons—same function). In anticipation of future discussion, however, it will be good to know that the “subject” category contrasts with the “objective” category, which, for nouns, includes a basic “objective” particle indicating direct/indirect object status (I threw the snowball.), as well as a range of more descriptive markers indicating spatial and temporal positions (“I arrived in Ko-Koro before sundown.”), along with aspectual contours of events (“I threw the snowball to Kopeke” vs. “I threw the snowball at Kopeke” vs. “I threw the snowball toward Kopeke”, etc.).

The subject forms of pronouns for first-person through “fourth-person” (an impersonal/generic pronoun “one, some”) are as follows (the particle indicates plural number):

Sg.       Plural
1 o          o nā
2 oa        oa nā
3 ai         ai nā
4 ua       ua nā

You can see that the paradigms for the plural pronouns are actually much simpler now than they were in previous lessons. Rejoice! Subject-pronouns are usually positioned directly before the verb. This is a fairly rigid rule; however, due to the variability of word order in Matoran, an object or other element could intervene between the subject-pronoun and verb. This is much more common when the subject is non-pronominal, however. The following examples will illustrate:

1) a. o okoma   “I sleep.” (oko ma “to sleep; to pause/rest”)
b. ai nā okonnā   “They are sleeping.”
c. oa orahō   “You spoke.”
d. ai orahōna   “He was speaking.”
e. o nā kamē   “We will go.”
f. ua orakha “One speaks...” (example context: “One should speak only when spoken to...”)
g. airahi oa akumō “You saw Rahi.” (aku ma “to see”; airahi < ai-rahi. The particle ai is objective.)
h. oa airahi akumō “You saw Rahi.”

The patterns of combination here are very straightforward. Note that (1g), which exhibits a full nominal object preceding the pronominal subject and the verb, would be more standard than (1h), which has a full nominal object intervening between subject and verb, although (1h) is certainly not ungrammatical.

III. Nominal Particles: Introduction.

Now that you’re aware of the overall structure of the nominal complex and you’ve been introduced to the subject-forms of pronouns, it’s time to jump into the first few types of nominal particles. These are the subject particle, the basic objective particle, and the possessive particle.

IIIa. The Subject Particle.

As its name suggests, the subject particle indicates that the noun is the subject of a sentence (generally the agent). The particle takes the form ai or ka, and is always positioned after the noun. The ai form generally occurs with stems ending in a consonant (ussal ai or ussalai), but can also occur with stems ending in a or a long vowel (or diphthong), in which case it is frequently shortened to -‘i (mata ai > mata’i; kolhī ai > kolhī’I, hau ai > hau’i). The ka form generally occurs with stems ending in a short vowel other than a (hoto ka, rhotu ka). As usual, the particle can be written as a separate word or attached to the noun either directly or with a dash.

One exception to the usage rules of ai/ka is as follows: if a stem ends with n, ka is frequently used instead of ai and merges with the noun stem itself, forming -nga: matoran-ka > matoranga.

Also, note that the subject particle is actual optional in many cases! For example, if a noun is placed directly before the verb (a common pattern), and information from context makes it possible to distinguish between the subject and object, the subject particle can be dropped. There is, in fact, an interesting interplay between word order and particle-marking that will be discussed in a later lesson.

IIIb. The Basic Objective Particle.

The basic objective particle indicates that the noun is a direct or indirect object, depending on the context and the verb involved. It is the most commonly used of the objective particles. The particle itself takes the form of ai or ak. The ai form generally occurs with nouns beginning in a consonant (rahi > ai rahi), while the ak form is used with nouns beginning in a vowel (ak ussal). As you can see, the particle is always positioned before the noun, and can be written as a separate word or attached to the noun either directly or with a dash (ai rahi, ai-rahi, airahi; ak ussal, ak-ussal, akussal).

One exception to the usage rules of ai/ak is as follows: if a stem begins with n, ak is frequently used instead of ai and merges with the noun stem itself, forming ang-: ak-nohi > angohi. This mirrors the exception to the usage rules of the subject pronoun discussed above.

Finally, note that, much like the subject particle, the basic objective particle is also optional in many cases, depending on the context, the presence of other forms of marking, and the word order. This interplay between factors will be discussed in-depth in a later section.

IIIc. Examples.

Now that you know something about the subject and basic objective particles, a few examples are in order:

2) a. matoranga ak-ussal usyōna.   "The Matoran was riding the Ussal." (us ya “to ride”)
b. ai-piraka toa’i zyōna.   "The Toa attacked the Piraka." (zya “to attack”)
c. turaga’i orahē  ai-matoran nā. "The Turaga spoke to the Matoran (pl.)."
d. kanohika crasyō ak-azal. “The Kanohi repelled the attack.” (cras ya “to repel”, azal “attack”)
e. gehelai galya.   “The river flows.” (gehel “river, stream”, gal ya “to flow”)
f. angenu toa’i vikimē. “The Toa cut the grass.” (angenu < ak-nenu  “grass”, viki ma “to cut”)
g. brakasai matyō ak-enerui. “The Brakas used (climbed) the vine.”

IIId. The Possessive Particle.

The possessive particle indicates—you guessed it—possession! It is attached to the possessor-noun (the noun that possesses something: Tahu’s mask, Makuta’s evil plan). The particle comes in two different flavors, each of which is historically descended from a single possessive marker. These two forms are wai, which is always placed before the noun, and ui or u’i, which is always placed after the noun. The wai form frequently truncates to wa- when the stem begins with a vowel. In addition, as you can see, the possessor-noun itself (stem+particle or particle+stem) is positioned after the noun it possesses.

Both of these markers descend from a single historical marker *-uai, which was originally placed after the noun. Recall, however, that in the case of verbs, verbal particles may be displaced before the stem to which they are attached. This is, in fact, a consistent pattern that extends beyond verbal particles, and the variation in the forms of the possessive particle are one of the results. Indeed, this concept of “variable position” will feature prominently in future discussions of the remaining objective particles.

A few examples, to conclude:

3) a. ussal wai-huki   “Hewkii’s ussal”
b. onoto matoranui   “Matoran’s tool” (onoto “tool”)
c. azahi pirakau’i   “Piraka’s crime” (azahi “crime”)
d. onuyo wa-ihu   “Ihu’s mountain” (truncation of wai to wa; (o)nuyo “mountain”)

## Learning Matoran: Lesson 6

Posted by Tolkien , in Matoran Language, Long Entries, linguistics, Language and Etymology, Bionicle Feb 12 2013 · 123 views

LEARNING MATORAN

- LESSON 6 -

Well, it’s been a long time. Time makes for changes. Change is scary. But after a long hiatus, I’ve worked up the motivation to post another installment of this project. Recently, I have actually been surprised to see some interest in the continuation of this endeavor, and for that I am grateful.

I’m afraid the changes to this conception of the Matoran Language have been significant--enough so that some of the previous lessons are now a bit outdated. This installment will deal with a more in-depth description of verbs in Matoran. Luckily, I never delved too deeply into the verbal system in previous lessons, so the changes won’t really be apparent. The pronominal system is largely intact, so check out Lesson 5 if you need a refresher. Nouns won’t make an appearance at all, so you don’t have to worry about them. One extremely minor change: I have been using the macron diacritic over a vowel to indicate a long vowel (ā, ē, ō, etc.), mainly as a space-saving convention. A double vowel is technically more in line with the orthography of Bionicle names, and it can still be used.

One final note: the tone of this “revised” lesson may be slightly less user-friendly than the tone of prior lessons. I’m afraid that that is an unfortunate result of the more in-depth nature of the topics discussed here. If you are really interested in learning more about some particular facet of this version of the Matoran Language, but find that the discussion here is worded obtusely or in a confusing manner, or if you have any general questions at all, feel free to leave a comment and let me know or send me a PM. Otherwise, have fun.

I. Verbs: Overview.

Verbs in Matoran are different from the typical English verb. They are made up of a stem and a verbal particle. There are three major verbal particles that will be mentioned here: ha, ya, and ma. These particles basically serve to indicate that the stem with which they are paired is of the category “verb” (rather than another category, such as “noun” or “adjective”). Some examples of common verbs are ka ma “to move”, ora ha “to speak”, and mat ya “to use/master”.

The combination of stem+particle will be referred to as the verbal complex.  This complex does not always form a rigid unit, since the particle can be separated from the stem in many cases. A few examples will illustrate (recall that the first person subject pronoun is o “I”):

1) a. o ka ma   “I move.”
b. o ma ka   “I do move.”
c. o ora ha   “I speak.”
d. o ha ora   “I do speak.”

(1a) compared to (1b) and (1c) compared to (1d) show one particular difference in the positioning of the particle with respect to the stem. If the particle is placed before the stem, it serves to emphasize the “reality” of the event described, much as in English. Placing the particle after the verb is the more standard procedure, however. Note that, in both cases, the subject (o “I”) precedes the entire verbal complex (stem+particle). It is a general rule for subjects to precede the verbal complex (especially when they are pronominal).

The particle ya is slightly irregular compared to ha and ma. When it is positioned before the stem, it is essentially “split”, leaving behind a vowel i, while a is displaced before the stem as usual (mat ya > a mat i).

In writing, the stem and particle can be written either as separate units (as above), as a single unit (i.e., kama, maka), or as separate units joined by a dash (ka-ma, ma-ka). It is usually standard procedure to write the stem and particle as a single unit when the particle follows the stem (kama), but as separate units (joined by a dash or not) when the particle precedes the stem (ma ka, ma-ka, but not usually maka). These are not hard-and-fast rules, but I will follow them in most cases for the sake of clarity in the discussions that follow.

II. Verbs: Inflection.

Verbs in Matoran are inflected for Tense and Aspect. Tense takes the form of Present Tense, Past Tense, and Future Tense. Aspect takes the form of Imperfective Aspect (non-completed action) and Perfective Aspect  (completed action).

IIa. Tense.

Tense is encoded on the verbal particle by modification of the basic form of the particle.

Present Tense is the simplest, with no change to the particle:

2) a. oraha > o oraha “I speak.”
b. matya > o matya “I use (smthg.)”
c. kama > o kama “I move/go.”

Past Tense changes the vowel of the particle to -ō (can be written -oo or just -o in shorthand; -ō develops from earlier -ā, showing that the formation of the past tense was originally just lengthening of the particle vowel a > ā):

3) a. ora ha > o orahō “I spoke.”
b. mat ya > o matyō “I used (smthg.)”
c. ka ma > o kamō “I moved/went.”

Future Tense changes the vowel of the particle to (can be written -ee or just -e in shorthand; develops from an earlier diphthong -ae, showing that the formation of the future tense was originally the addition of a vowel -e to the particle vowel -a > -ae).

4) a. ora ha > o orahē “I will speak.”
b. mat ya > o matyē “I will use (smthg.)”
c. ka ma > o kamē “I will move/go.”

Tense inflection can also occur with the reversed particle+stem configuration, in which case the tense-marked particle is simply displaced before the stem (e.g., orahō > hō-ora, matyē > ē-mati, etc.).

IIb. Aspect.

Aspect is encoded by the addition of an aspectual particle to the verbal complex. If no aspectual particle is added, the interpretation is ambiguous between the different types of aspect (e.g., imperfective, perfective, etc.). Aspectual particles always follow the verbal complex, regardless of whether or not the complex is stem+particle (e.g., ora ha) or particle+stem (ha ora):

Imperfective Aspect is equivalent in meaning to the progressive construction in English (be+...-ing: "I am/was/will be playing with Legos."). It is indicated by the addition of the particle ana to the verbal complex. This particle frequently merges with the stem or particle preceding it, taking on the form of a suffix more than an independent particle. In such cases, it can be written either as -na or -‘na. The imperfective particle can be used with all tenses: present, past, and future:

5) With present tense:
a. ora ha > o oraha ana > o orahana OR o oraha’na “I am speaking.”
b. mat ya > o matya ana > o matyana OR o matya’na  “I am using (smthg.)”
c. ka ma > o kama ana > o kamana OR o kama’na “I am moving/going.”

6) With past tense:
a. ora ha > o orahō ana > o orahōna OR o orahō’na “I was speaking.”
b. mat ya > o matyō ana > o matyōna OR o matyō’na  “I was using (smthg.)”
c. ka ma > o kamō ana > o kamōna OR o kamō’na “I was moving/going.”

7) With future tense:
a. ora ha > o orahē ana > o orahēna OR o orahē’na “I will be speaking.”
b. mat ya > o matyē ana > o matyēna OR o matyē’na  “I will be using (smthg.)”
c. ka ma > o kamē ana > o kamēna OR o kamē’na “I will be moving/going.”

These tense/aspect combinations can also occur with the reversed particle+stem configuration, in which case the aspectual particle still follows the verbal complex and instead attaches to the stem itself (rather than the particle):

8) With present tense:
a. ha-ora > o ha-ora ana > o ha-orana OR o ha-ora’na   “I am speaking.”
b. a-mati > o a-mati ana > o a-matyana   “I am using (smthg.)”
c. ma-ka > o ma-ka ana > o ma-kana OR o ma-ka’na   “I am moving/going.”

9) With past tense:
a. ha-ora > o hō-ora ana > o hō-orana OR o hō-ora’na   “I was speaking.”
b. a-mati > o ō-mati ana > o ō-matyana   “I was using (smthg.)”
c. ma-ka > o mō-ka ana > o mō-kana OR o mō-ka’na   “I was moving/going.”

10) With future tense:
a. ha-ora > o hē-ora ana > o hē-orana OR o hē-ora’na   “I will be speaking.”
b. a-mati > o ē-mati ana > o ē-matyana   “I will be using (smthg.)”
c. ma-ka > o mē-ka ana > o mē-kana OR o mē-ka’na “I will be moving/going.”

Perfective Aspect is equivalent in meaning to the perfect construction in English (have+...-ed: "I have/had/will have played with Legos."). It is indicated by the addition of the particle anga to the verbal complex. This particle frequently merges with the stem or particle preceding it, taking on the form of a suffix more than an independent particle. In such cases, it can be written either as -nga or -‘nga. The perfective particle can also be used with all tenses: present, past, and future:

11) With present tense:
a. ora ha > o oraha anga > o orahanga OR o oraha’nga “I have spoken.”
b. mat ya > o matya anga > o matyanga OR o matya’nga  “I have used (smthg.)”
c. ka ma > o kama anga > o kamanga OR o kama’nga “I have moved/gone.”

12) With past tense:
a. ora ha > o orahō anga > o orahōnga OR o orahō’nga “I had spoken.”
b. mat ya > o matyō anga > o matyōnga OR o matyō’nga  “I had used (smthg.)”
c. ka ma > o kamō anga > o kamōnga OR o kamō’nga “I had moved/gone.”

13) With future tense:
a. ora ha > o orahē anga > o orahēnga OR o orahē’nga “I will have spoken.”
b. mat ya > o matyē anga > o matyēnga OR o matyē’nga  “I will have used (smthg.)”
c. ka ma > o kamē anga > o kamēnga OR o kamē’nga “I will have moved/gone.”

These tense/aspect combinations can also occur with the reversed particle+stem configuration, in which case the aspectual particle still follows the verbal complex and instead attaches to the stem itself (rather than the particle):

14) With present tense:
a. ha-ora > o ha-ora anga > o ha-oranga OR o ha-ora’nga   “I have spoken.”
b. a-mati > o a-mati anga > o a-matyanga   “I have used (smthg.)”
c. ma-ka > o ma-ka anga > o ma-kanga OR o ma-ka’nga   “I have moved/gone.”

15) With past tense:
a. ha-ora > o hō-ora anga > o hō-oranga OR o hō-ora’nga   “I had spoken.”
b. a-mati > o ō-mati anga > o ō-matyanga   “I had used (smthg.)”
c. ma-ka > o mō-ka anga > o mō-kanga OR o mō-ka’nga   “I had moved/gone.”

16) With future tense:
a. ha-ora > o hē-ora anga > o hē-oranga OR o hē-ora’nga   “I will have spoken.”
b. a-mati > o ē-mati anga > o ē-matyanga   “I will have used (smthg.)”
c. ma-ka > o mē-ka anga > o mē-kanga OR o mē-ka’nga “I will have moved/gone.”

IIc. Stem changes and irregularities.

Oh dear! You thought you were going to get off easy, didn’t you? Well, don’t be too nervous: most of these “irregularities” are pretty straightforward:

- Verbal complexes containing the particle ha exhibit a strengthening of h to kh when it occurs between vowels. Thus:

17) a. ora ha > orakha (basic present tense)
b. ha ora > ha-ora (basic present tense, particle+stem order, no strengthening)
c. ora ha ana > orakhana (present imperfective)
d. ha-ora ana > ha-orana (present imperf., particle+stem order, no strengthening)

- Verbal complexes containing the particle ma in which the stem ends in a vowel (e.g., ka ma “to move/go” but not jut ma “to decay”) exhibit an assimilation of m to n in the presence of the imperfective particle ana, along with an overall reduction of the verbal complex itself. This only occurs in the present tense:

18) a. ka ma ana > kamana > kanna (present imperf.)
b. ka mō ana > kamōna (past imperf., no assimilation/reduction)
c. jut ma ana > jutmana  (present imperf., no assimilation/reduction)

[Does (17a) look familiar? How about (18a)? If you’re familiar with the previous Lessons (Lesson 3, to be precise), you may recognize that these “irregularities” are essentially the same as the “stem gradation” of older versions of the Matoran Language. The end result is very similar, but the original system of “stem gradation” had no real etymological basis, so it was significantly revised. Is it a blast from the past, or just a horrible over-complication? I don’t know!*]

*I don’t care!

## Merry...

Posted by Tolkien , in Holidays Dec 25 2012 · 133 views

...Christmas.

December 25th, 2012.

JRRT

## The Trumpet Sounds

Posted by Tolkien , in Writing??, Long Entries Dec 21 2012 · 95 views

[In honor of the imminent end, the Ambage decided to host an impromptu write-off. My first thought was "Mayans? Forget them. The end of the world is way more interesting in Norse mythology." And, well, here's the result. It may be a bit over the top, but I hope you can enjoy it anyway. Oh look, one minute till Tomorrow...]

: :

The Trumpet Sounds

When the trumpet sounded, we left our homes and went to watch. All our bickering was over—all our greed, our avarice. It was suddenly worth so little in the face of the coming end. The trumpet echoed over field and mountain, from the city to the waste, and into every corner of the groaning earth. Birds scattered across the sky, and the beasts of the field fled to their hollows, and far below, the dark things stirred and awakened, exulting.

The stones of the mighty causeway upon which we traveled had been laid down long ago by the giants of the earth, bound by their oaths to the gods. Their sleeping forms lay sprawled across the land on either side, clothed with trees and green grass. The fire would soon wake them if the trumpet did not. It was louder now: splitting the clouds above as the mass of humanity made its way down the track. Down toward the mountains of the gods. There we would watch. There we would be safe. So we thought.

A hand gripped my arm as I trudged forward, head down. I turned and saw a wrinkled face, a gray beard, a one-eyed gaze piercing me. The old man leaned upon a twisted stick. He looked weak, and I stooped to support him. Suddenly his grip tightened, and I felt the strength in his fingers.

“My time is done, lad,” he rasped in my ear. “The trumpet sounds for me.”

“Surely not yet, old one,” I replied and tried to smile, but he shook his gray head. His one eye looked distant.

“The trumpet sounds, and Death is blowing upon it. Its jaws are wide, and soon I must fall into those jaws...”

He stumbled again, trembling, and sank to the ground. I knelt with him as the stream of humanity trudged around us. He fixed me with his good eye once more, and now a smile played round his mouth.

“My thanks for your kindness, lad, but you must go now,” he said. “I’ll rest here and wait. My time is done, but yours isn’t. Only remember my words, when the jaws open wide for me: Seek the darkness when the fire comes. She’ll wait for you. She will.”

He sighed and pushed me away then, clutching his stick. I tried to help him, but he was gone. The bodies pressed closer, carrying me along the causeway. At last I surrendered and turned my face back toward the looming mountains, wondering at his words.

Soon pillars of stone rose before us, and the high ridge--white as bone--that sheltered Earth from the light of heaven. We camped there, and at last we looked back upon the lands we had left behind, following the call of the horns of heaven. We looked and felt fear, for the end was a terrible thing to see:

On one hand came the hordes of the unfettered dead, marching from their caverns beneath the earth, cold and dripping and hungry for the light. On the other hand rose the raging sea, brimming with the waterlogged bodies of the drowned, and on its surface came the terrible stone ships of the fire giants—vast rafts of pockmarked pumice, floating on a foam of boiling surf. They raised flaming eyes to the shores of Earth, and in their hands was fire, unquenchable.

The shorelines quailed at their approach, and steam went up to darken the sky. Fields smoked and burned, and far above, carrion birds mixed their cries with the sound of the trumpet, while wolves howled on the empty hills. The beasts hoped to sate their hunger when the battle was over. They hoped in vain.

There was a crash away behind us as the gates of heaven opened, and deadly light flickered forth to strike at the armies of the dead below. They grasped at it in droves, hungry for life, but found only more death, and the dust of their corpses mixed with ashes on the battlefield while mighty men fought and fell and swelled the ranks of the dead all the more. From the boiling sea came serpents, and writhed across the dry land in waves of poison. Spears flew and swords flickered, and the footsteps of gods shook the earth as they had not since the beginning.

True fear gripped me at last, and I fell back from the edge of the ridge, for the tide of battle was drawing near. We had thought to find safety here, here in sight of heaven, but the end came on regardless, inevitable. It would all burn, and us with it. The gods could not stave off fire and death, for they had seen their own ends.

Suddenly I stopped, and an apparition crested the bone-white slope. A spear raised, scattering light from its nine-bladed tip, and the hand that grasped it was strong. A horse reared up, its mane and tail aflame, and the rider pierced me with his ancient, one-eyed gaze, gray hair framing a wrinkled face, full of fury. The trumpet swelled and crashed upon my ears.

And then I remembered the words, as the jaws opened wide for him. A wolf-like shape reared up behind the rider, and the sun turned black, and I fled.

I fled, and as I ran it seemed that world changed and grew thin: the mountain walls of heaven dissolved, and there was a narrow defile leading on beneath the sky. Deeper and deeper, dark walls of stone rising on either side, until the walls fell away, and at last I saw, thrusting from the horizon, the shape of a tree.

It was a withered tree, twisted branches hung with a thousand nooses, and I stumbled for a moment in the blood-soaked earth. Still I went on, and the dead canopy stretched over my head. As I continued, I felt a weight bearing down on me. A weight of despair...so heavy. Darkness was falling, and I stumbled again, almost giving up—

—but a hand gripped mine and pulled me to my feet once more. There was light again, and I saw that it was a woman, clad in rags. Her face was desperate, like mine. “She’ll wait for you,” the old man had said. I did not understand.

Wordless, she pointed to the base of the tree, and in the flickering I saw a hollow between the roots.

“Seek the darkness when the fire comes.”

A glance behind, and now I saw the source of the light: a horizon full to brimming, red and angry, filled with fire, unquenchable. The trumpet crowed on as the giants danced upon the graves of the gods, and a mighty wolf lay with his jaws broken, the nine-bladed spear buried in his side. A serpent writhed in its death throes, and suddenly the horizon brimmed over. Fire spilled out, and a thousand, thousand souls went screaming up as we plunged headlong into the final darkness beneath the hanging tree...

...And the trumpet fell silent.

: :

JRRT

## I don't always set syntactic directionality parameters...

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics Dec 07 2012 · 124 views

...but when I do, I prefer head-initial.

JRRT

## It's the Library COT deserves...

Posted by Tolkien , in BZPower Dec 01 2012 · 149 views

...AND the one it needs right now.

- COT Library Ticket -

I support this.

Consider supporting it too.

JRRT

## My Aspect Today

Posted by Tolkien , in linguistics Nov 12 2012 · 118 views

Inchoative.

JRRT

## Example (4a)

Posted by Tolkien , in Bionicle, linguistics Oct 30 2012 · 94 views

Just a placeholder example from a journal article in the works. Disregard the surrounding jargon. It’s pretty bad, but I thought I’d share it anyways (yay semantico-syntactic treeees). I’m considering just leaving the example in there to see what kind of “huh?” reaction it gets out of an editor. Could be fun...

JRRT

## "The End" Explained

Posted by Tolkien , in Writing??, Long Entries, Bionicle Oct 24 2012 · 170 views

A few of you may have read a short story I posted at the end of last year, entitled “The End”. If you haven’t...well, this blog post won’t make much sense to you at all. So, in the interest of understanding, why not...go...read it? You might like it. (Shameful plug. Yeah, shameful.)

Regardless, I’ve always considered “The End” to be one of the most cryptic things I’ve written, probably to its own detriment. That’s been the consensus of the reviews, at least, and it’s my fault. The story is very vague about some very important points, and I’ve never given any clear description of the back-story or the idea behind the story itself (although there is a consistent storyline. I promise!). Well, now it’s time to end (!) the silence, and spoil it all. Read on if you care.

------------------

Basically, “The End” is set in an alternate Bionicle universe. That much, at least, has been stated before. Events progress in basically the same way that they did in the primary Bionicle reality, with a few significant changes. These differences are referenced (in an admittedly very vague way) in a series of passages near the end of the story. To start off, I’ll quote the passage of primary interest in full.

[Note: I am assuming that you’ve read the story, and are somewhat familiar with the plot, so I won’t be doing an in-depth summary of anything up to this point].

Nga-ro remembered the time before…a time when he had had a different place, a different name. What had his name been? He remembered the voices of his companions, his people. All around him, working and laboring. Filling the world with their voices and their life as he looked on from a distance.

And then it started to fade, and he felt weary…so weary…A dark figure arose on the horizon of the world. Black and immense, his laughter echoed in the skies. He lifted a hand upward, and sleep took hold of Nga-ro. Endless sleep. But Nga-ro had no relief, for the duty tortured him in his slumber. Make it right. Make it right.

He glimpsed the black one—the one who called himself Nothing—saw how he took hold of the world, sought to drain it of its life and its light. No, no, no. He had to make it right…but he was slipping away, slipping away into the darkness beyond all darkness. The darkness of death, and suddenly his spirit was alone in the cold, and harsh stars shed their alien light upon him. He had lost his destination, the point toward which he had always directed his steps. His guiding star. Nga-ro…no, surely that was not his name then…he had lost himself.

No! It must not be so! He turned back toward the world of the living, clawed his way back from the darkness. But he could not return to his former place. He was cast out, alone and unseen, as the world—his world—fell into chaos. Even the dark one could not stop it. He had not known what the consequences would be.

But then Nga-ro looked within himself, and a plan formed. Back, back, back to the City. The city still filled with life, with light. The dark one had fled, cowering, trying to escape. Even he was fearful, who had called himself Master of Fear, even he feared to become nothing in the end.

But Nga-ro had a plan. He had walked upon the solid ground and looked upon the solid sights of the City, and around him the people had gathered and they had seen him as he was—like them. Small, perhaps, but very alive. And he had told them his plan, as darkness fell over the world:

Sleep.

Sleep.

All must sleep.

And I will keep watch, until the darkness is over, and the light is found again.

Sleep, now.

Until I make all things right…

Okay, so (spoilers!) Nga-ro is actually the Great Spirit in Matoran form. At the end of the story, he “awakens” the Matoran (and, presumably, the rest of the universe), and the journey of the MU continues on toward Spherus Magna. This passage provides the backstory for how things came to be as they are at the time of “The End”. Nga-ro is alone, having forgotten almost everything. Metru Nui is in shambles. Everything is dark and dead. What leads up to this?

Nga-ro remembered the time before…a time when he had had a different place, a different name. What had his name been? He remembered the voices of his companions, his people. All around him, working and laboring. Filling the world with their voices and their life as he looked on from a distance.

The Great Spirit watches the Matoran—his people—“from a distance”. Pretty straightforward.

And then it started to fade, and he felt weary…so weary…A dark figure arose on the horizon of the world. Black and immense, his laughter echoed in the skies. He lifted a hand upward, and sleep took hold of Nga-ro. Endless sleep. But Nga-ro had no relief, for the duty tortured him in his slumber. Make it right. Make it right.

Mata Nui feels “weary”, a “dark figure” appears, and Mata Nui falls asleep. Also pretty straightforward. It should be clear that the “dark figure” is Makuta. Recall that there’s already been a discussion of someone who was called “Nothing” (but who must have had a more “original” name) earlier in the story.

He glimpsed the black one—the one who called himself Nothing—saw how he took hold of the world, sought to drain it of its life and its light. No, no, no. He had to make it right…but he was slipping away, slipping away into the darkness beyond all darkness. The darkness of death, and suddenly his spirit was alone in the cold, and harsh stars shed their alien light upon him. He had lost his destination, the point toward which he had always directed his steps. His guiding star. Nga-ro…no, surely that was not his name then…he had lost himself.

Mata Nui dreams as Makuta takes over the universe. And eventually, he slips into the “darkness of death”, having lost “his destination” (what is Mata Nui’s destination? Spherus Magna: a “guiding star”).

At this point, a summary/clarification of events is in order:
- First (this is implied but never stated), the MU never crashes into Aqua Magna after Mata Nui falls asleep. Therefore, the Great Cataclysm doesn’t necessarily happen in the same way. Why does that matter? It does. I promise.

- Second, Mata Nui falls asleep, and Makuta begins to take over the universe. Mata Nui dreams about this (he is “tortured” by his duty).

- Mata Nui eventually dies, same as in the primary Bionicle reality. He is “alone in the cold, and harsh stars shed their alien light upon him.” At this point, he has also lost his destination, Spherus Magna.

- This is where the second significant change comes into play, and events progress differently from there. Continuing on:

He turned back toward the world of the living, clawed his way back from the darkness.

Pretty straightforward. Mata Nui’s spirit returns.

But he could not return to his former place. He was cast out, alone and unseen, as the world—his world—fell into chaos.

Mata Nui’s death means that the MU is shutting down (falling into chaos). Mata Nui is only a spirit though, and cannot (or doesn’t remember how) to gain control of the MU again.

Even the dark one could not stop it. He had not known what the consequences would be.

This is an aside concerning Makuta. We know that, at some point, Makuta didn’t know that Mata Nui would die. So the MU shutting down was a wrinkle in his plan.

But then Nga-ro looked within himself, and a plan formed. Back, back, back to the City. The city still filled with life, with light.

The City is Metru Nui. Easy enough. Mata Nui has a plan.

The dark one had fled, cowering, trying to escape. Even he was fearful, who had called himself Master of Fear, even he feared to become nothing in the end.

Another aside concerning the fate of Makuta. Failing to prevent the shutdown of the universe, he flees.

But Nga-ro had a plan. He had walked upon the solid ground and looked upon the solid sights of the City, and around him the people had gathered and they had seen him as he was—like them. Small, perhaps, but very alive. And he had told them his plan, as darkness fell over the world:

This was probably the vaguest point of the entire story (although it is clarified slightly by a later passage). Basically, it’s implied that Mata Nui regains a physical form in Metru Nui (“walked upon the solid ground and looked upon the solid sights of the City”). The Matoran see him “as he was—like them. Small, perhaps, but very alive.” Implication is that he has become a Matoran. He tells them his plan, as the universe shuts down:

Sleep.

Sleep.

All must sleep.

And I will keep watch, until the darkness is over, and the light is found again.

Sleep, now.

Until I make all things right…

Basically, the universe (or maybe just the Matoran in Metru Nui?) goes into hibernation/stasis. Mata Nui alone remains, trying to figure out how to “make things right”.

This is probably the central concept of the story: a reversal of Mata Nui and the Matoran. Mata Nui has become a Matoran, and the Matoran themselves are all asleep, while Mata Nui remains awake trying to awaken them once more.

Alright, so the flashback ends, and we shift forward. Nga-ro awakens on the floor of the Great Temple. He has remembered his past, and suddenly he sees a star in the sky above him:

Because there was a light. There above him. A speck. A single point of white. His eyes strained, eyes that had been unused for so many millennia. It was almost too painful to look.

But he did not close his eyes. Suddenly it resolved, and all became clear. It was a light, far, far above him, immeasurably far away. A star, a single star in all that blackness of night. How could he see it?

The roof of the Great Temple was broken. He could see the outline where the stones had fallen in. Just enough for him to glimpse the sky. After all this time, one tiny point of light…a single star.

He knew that star.

Mata Nui has found Spherus Magna (his “guiding star”) once again.

There was the Symbol again, the constant reminder of his duty.

The concept of Mata Nui’s duty comes up once again. This “constant reminder” harkens back to the passage:

But what of his destination? That must be where the end would come. Yes, he remembered something about it. It drew him...as if someone had written its pattern upon his mind. And no matter how long he lived or how far he went, it was always there, pushing at him, prodding him, as if to say, Make it right.

The fact that the Symbol is actually a map of the Spherus Magna system, and that it is actually physically carved into the MU by the Blade Burrowers is, I admit, a really obtuse piece of trivia. Sorry.

He placed his hand upon the middle of the three circles, flattened his palm. Words came to him, words that he had spoken in the time when time still ran true and straight. Words that he had spoken to his people when he had found his way back from the darkness of sleep and death.

Who am I? he had asked. Who indeed? Shading his eyes as he had stumbled from the entrance to the Great Temple, dazed, confused. Limited. He had not lived within a body so small before…

This is the clarifying passage I noted above. Maybe it’s not so clarifying...Anyways, after regaining physical form (“finding his way back”), Mata Nui “stumbled from the entrance to the Great Temple.” He is disoriented: “...dazed, confused. Limited. He had not lived within a body so small before...” (hint hint!). He asks the Matoran a question: “Who am I?”

And what had they answered? What had they said to him when they turned their faces upon him, faces filled with fear as the light of their universe faded? What had they said when they saw the light of his eyes and knew him?

Basically a clarification of the situation. The Matoran recognize him as the Great Spirit, as their universe continues to crumble. The answer to his question is given a bit later, at the climax of the story, where it is revealed that Nga-ro is Mata Nui. Mata Nui then reawakens the universe, and continues on toward Spherus Magna.

And I think that should cover it. If you got this far, you're a trooper. I appreciate your time. Hopefully, this has made "The End" just slightly less cryptic and bizarre of a story to read. If so, success.

Glad I got that off my chest.

JRRT

### Chapter I

=ll=

"Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat: it was a blog-hole, and that means comfort."

=ll=

### A Short Bio of the...Author?

=ll=

The author of this blog currently resides in the rather dry, bare, sandy climate of the southwest United States. He is a graduate student and Teaching Associate at his university, currently working toward a Ph.D. in Rhetoric, Composition, and Linguistics.

His primary interests include such -ologies as mythology, philology, etymology, syntax, and phonology, along with a healthy passion for historical linguistics binding all these bewildering fields together. Some less academic hobbies include reading classical literature and mythology, high and epic fantasy, science fiction, and the occasional Tolkien biography, as well as attempting (and mostly failing) to write fiction modeled after these genres. His taste in music ranges from classical arrangements to modern film scores (especially when there is not much difference between the two).

In addition to these things, he also harbors the deep-set enjoyment of the Bionicle sets and storyline essential to any hapless LEGO geek who has made the decision to become a member of the BZPower community. Without it, he obviously wouldn't be here writing this, and you wouldn't be reading it. This fact is, in part, what inspired his lasting interest in the art of pixeling, a skill that he apparently isn't all that bad at, although you might never know it, seeing as his severe lack of motivation and excess of procrastination usually prevents him from producing anything much at all.

=l=

### user(s) viewing

members, guests, anonymous users

### = Some Writings =

=ll=

Unknowledge [Review] - (Epic) Finalist in Epics Contest #7: Murder Mysteries. Unknowledge centers around the mysterious death of Toa Moihu and ensuing investigation by Toa Ros, interwoven with the quest to uncover the reality behind the dark nature of the Dedh-See Scroll. Ultimately, the truth that Ros discovers and is forced to confront may be darker than anyone could have imagined.

Judgement [Review] - (Epic) Judgement opens with a death sentence pronounced upon Toa Jor, watch-Toa of Metru Nui. It then follows the events leading up to this shocking scene, with the arrival of Toa Jovan, bearing grave news concerning the fate of the universe itself, as well as a plan to stop it.

Windows Through the Void [Review] - (Epic) Windows is a serial inspired by the old online serials of Bioniclestory.com. Serial 1 follows Takanuva, Toa of Light, as he journeys across the void to a world of dark trees and night, only to find that he must accomplish another task before his original quest can be completed.

The Time - (SS) A semi-mythic account of the origin of Avan, the first Matoran, in the Time Before Time--the Time of the Great Beings.

Despair - (SS) 1st Place winner of the 2010 Library Summer Olympics (SS category). "Despair" is a prequel to the epic Unknowledge, beginning with the arrival of a mysterious Toa in the city of Moa, deep within the Waste. His motives are unknown, as the nature of the dark Kanohi he wears. But the subsequent arrival of Toa Ros soon sets things in motion, leading up to an epic confrontation between hope and despair.

Dust - (SS) The Dark Hunter Devastator returns to Karzahni, his native land. He must find the Matoran called the Builder and retrieve a stolen tablet, but along the way his encounters with the crazed, broken Matoran and the dreaded Karzahni himself provide him with a sliver of new perspective in this land of dust and living death.

A Storm is Coming - (SS) Entrant in the (now stalled) Lesovikk's Hiatus contest. It tells the tale of Toa Lesovikk's three-day battle with a Rock Lion in a strange land where it never rains and the encounter he has there with the castaway Toa Jovan. Can Lesovikk find the strength to finish his task, or will the memories of his past defeat him? A storm is about to break.

Remember [Archive] - (SS) The Mountains of the Matoran are a strange place, but even stranger are the discoveries to be made within them. Two Agori venture deep into the heart of the mountains, and soon their plight becomes a struggle for survival as they try to escape the strange corridors of this dark place. But at the end of their journey lies a revelation more shocking than they could ever have imagined.

The Coming of the Toa - (SS) 3rd place Judges' Choice winner of Short Stories Contest #8. A glimpse into an alternate history of Bionicle, where something has gone terribly wrong. Kua seeks to discover what it is that the Matoran have lost, the darkness in their past. But can even he resist the power of the darkness that lies beneath?

The End - (SS) Nga-Ro has waited for so long in the darkness and cold of the ruined city. He has forgotten much. But now...even he must find the strength to resist the darkness of death and remember his duty. For the end has come...

The Sight - (SS) 1st place winner in the 2012 Flash Fiction Marathon (Visions Category).

The Power - (SS) 1st place winner of the 2012 Library Summer Olympics: Artistic Gymnastics Reimagine (Bionicle category).

Once Whole - (SS)

Hue #1471 - (SS)

Looming - (SS)

Static [Review] - (Co-authored Epic, OTC) Gold medalist in the 2012 Library Summer Olympics: Epics Unlimited Prompt Relay. Co-authored with Grant-Sud Rises, Velox, and Legolover-361.

Ever Up - (SS, OTC)

Long Day - (SS, OTC)

Beyond the Ridge of Tears - (SS, OTC)

The Trumpet Sounds - (SS, Blog)

=ll=