Search the Community
Showing results for tags 'physics'.
Found 4 results
Hello BZPers (is that really what we call ourselves?) This is going to get a little wee bit technical and scientific, and astrophysical, geological even. Sciency. I know the world of BIONICLE doesn't really have real world physics, but I was wondering anyway, does anyone think that Spherus Magna (and by extension, Bara Magna, Bota Magna and Aqua Magna) have/had plate tectonics? Today, in astrophysics, astronomy, geography and geology, it is thought that a planet needs plate tetconics in order to have life on them, for several reasons. One is it is indicative of active core inside the planet. And without an active core, you get no atmosphere, and by no atmosphere you get no oxygen, at least in the real universe. Another reason is that with the moving plates, and the constant recycling/reformation of the plates, all the stuff of life is replenished on our Earth. Things like large amounts of water and carbonate (the mineral form of Co2) is recycled back into the Earth as the plates move as well. I've gathered some text from articles on the subject. They are both a bit long, but hang in there please! I have something to say afterwards... Here is a bit of text taken from the article Plate Tectonics Could be Essential for Life at Astrobio.com Says Spohn, “plate tectonics replenishes the nutrition that primitive life could live on. Imagine a top surface that is depleted of the nutrition needed for bacterial life. It needs to be replenished, and plate tectonics is a method of achieving this.” Spohn found that the further he delved into the issue, the more important plate tectonics seemed to be for life. For example, it is believed that life developed by moving from the ocean to the kind of strong and stable rock formations that are the result of tectonic action. Plate tectonics is also involved in the generation of a magnetic field by convection of Earth’s partially molten core. This magnetic field protects life on Earth by deflecting the solar wind. Not only would an unimpeded solar wind erode our planet’s atmosphere, but it also carries highly energetic particles that could damage DNA. Another factor is the recycling of carbon, which is needed to stabilize the temperature here on Earth. Spohn explains, “plate tectonics is known to recycle carbon that is washed out of the atmosphere and digested by bacteria in the soil into the interior of the planet from where it can be outcast through volcanic activity. Now, if you have a planet without plate tectonics, you may have parts of this cycle, but it is broken because you do not have the recycling link.”<END OF QUOTATION> Another article, "Does a planet need plate tectonics to develop life?" from phys.org says about the movements of plates and habitable planets: Plate movements Plate tectonics provides a mechanism for this global thermostat. Most volcanism on the Earth occurs at plate boundaries in response to plate tectonics. And the most important volcanic products by mass – by a large amount – are two greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide and water. As they move over the Earth’s surface, some plates get recycled back into the mantle, at places like the Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Enormous amounts of water and carbonate (the mineral form of CO2) get recycled back into the interior as they do. Plate tectonics also form mountains, and one of the major sinks of CO2over geological time periods is weathering of mountains, where CO2dissolved in rainwater reacts with silicate minerals, forming new minerals, and drawing down atmospheric CO2 levels. In concert, these mechanisms act as a thermostat. If the Earth gets too hot, high levels of rainfall and erosion start bringing CO2 levels down. If the Earth gets too cold and freezes over, the erosion mechanism stops. But volcanism, due to plate tectonics, continues pumping CO2 into the atmosphere, and levels build up, eventually melting the icecaps. It was this mechanism that allowed Earth to recover from a global ice age in the Neoproterozoic, about 600 million years ago. Habitable planets This association between habitability, and plate tectonics, has become so entrenched that the search for habitable exosolar planets has focused on super earths. These are rocky planets larger than Earth where the odds for plate tectonics were thought to be higher. But the case is not so clear cut. Over the past decade, simulations of these super earths suggested that they may not have plate tectonics, but rather be in a stagnant-lid state, where a hot interior powers high levels of volcanism, but without moving plates. Our recent work has looked at the question from an evolutionary viewpoint. How do Earth-like planets evolve from their hot, violent beginnings to their eventual cool, quiescent twilights, radiating their last heat to space? We found that the evolutionary track a planet takes depends not only on its size, but on how it starts. For example, two planets identical in every other way, but with different starting temperatures, may evolve down very different evolutionary paths. We also found that plate tectonics may simply be a phase in the evolution of planets, and that planets may begin and end with stagnant lids.<END OF QUOTATION> Now, we do know that Spherus Magna had (or maybe have?) a core, which is, or was, comprised of Energized Protodermis. But do we know it acts like planet cores do in the real world? Earth's core generates heat, some of which is done through uranium in our core (yeah there's radioactive material in there), which by warming the adjacent molten material, rises to the earth's crust. This powers continental drift creates earthquakes and volcanoes, and mountains. But the movement of the molten iron of our world's core also creates magnetism, which protects the surface of the earth from the UV radiation coming from the sun. The fact that the core is semi-liquid is what makes the tectonics possible by the way. Now, the question is, does the core of Spherus Magna act like this too? Does SM even have an atmosphere? Wouldn't the 40,000,000 feet tall mechanoid the Great Beings built on there make that impossible? I mean, there is oxygen on there, or an equivalent, because beings, organic and biomechanical, have beem shown to have lungs. But an atmosphere would be needed to keep the oxygen in right? So is the atmosphere just super huge, reaching further out than Earth's? Or does the robot go through the atmosphere without any complications, like the atmosphere somehow breaking, if that's even possible to do by going through it, or being pierced constantly? And if plate tectonics does appear on Spherus Magna, what do you think the geography looked like in the past compared to the present? One last bit of speculation. When Aqua Magna and Bota Magna split from Spherus Magna, did they bring some of the Energized Protodermis with them, forming smaller cores of their own? It would seem like that would be necessary right? But again, real physics don't apply to BIONICLE, but it is still fun to theorize with the mindset that there are some kind of physical and scientific rules to all of it. Most of the best speculative fiction set in different worlds have its own rules and system, and follows them after all. I've found another article from Astrobio called "Earth’s Breathable Atmosphere Tied to Plate Tectonics?" It also has a bit about astrobiology later on, but I've only quoted the first two parts of the text below, The rise of oxygen is one of the biggest puzzles in Earth’s history. Our planet’s atmosphere started out oxygen-free. Then, around 3.5 billion years ago, tiny microbes called cyanobacteria (or blue-green algae) learned how to carry out photosynthesis. They began using energy from sunlight to make their food from carbon dioxide and water, giving off oxygen as waste. But it took another 3 billion years for oxygen levels to climb from trace amounts to at least 20 percent of the atmosphere, or high enough to support the emergence of complex life. And so far the mechanism behind that rise has remained unclear. Now a new study by University of Exeter biogeochemist Benjamin Mills and his colleagues offers a new potential clue. Using a computer model, they showed that plate tectonics may have fueled an increase in oxygen between 1.5 billion and half a billion years ago. In particular, a process tied to the way continents remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere may have increased the supply of phosphorus, a key nutrient for photosynthetic microbes in the ocean. The paper was published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. “This is a novel perspective for the late Proterozoic—a critical time of dramatic climate change, rising oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere, and origins and diversification of complex life,” says Timothy Lyons, a biogeochemist not involved in the study. From Seafloor to Terrestrial “Weathering’ The chemical weathering of rocks releases calcium ions in rivers and oceans, where they react with carbonate dissolved in the water. The product of that reaction, calcium carbonate, is then deposited onto the ocean floor, where it becomes limestone. (Photograph ©2009 Greg Carley.) Continents play a crucial role in the carbon cycle by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide mixes with rain water, forming a weak acid (carbonic acid) which slowly wears down or “weathers” rocks on land. The process releases minerals such as calcium and magnesium from the rocks. These minerals then combine with carbonate and settle at the bottom of the ocean forming layers of calcium carbonate, or limestone. In other words, the weathering process simply pulls carbon from the atmosphere and turns it into a layer of sediment on the seafloor. However, continental rocks aren’t the only route by which carbon is removed from the atmosphere. Ocean ridges, the places where fresh crust is made on the seafloor, can undergo a similar “weathering” process. In fact, seafloor weathering was the main route of carbon removal in the early chapter of Earth’s history, before the formation of continents. According to the new study, the rise of oxygen may have been due to a shift in balance between the two processes—between seafloor and continental weathering. Also, bump ;P
EDIT: Updated my theory with more info/alterations. EDIT 2: Having seen some of the new episodes, I feel I can revise the list a bit again. It also seems that I had forgotten to put Mind on the list of secondary elements So with the recent revelations that Fire, Earth, Lightning, and Ice are NOT the only elements, and that Wind is apparently an element, I'm a little curious as to how Ninjago elements actually WORK. Since there are (as for as we know) only 4 golden weapons, that would seem to imply that fire, earth, lightning, and ice are the main elements. Does that mean other elements are derived from those elements? Do the "secondary" elements make up the main ones or do the main ones combine to make the secondary ones? Is Wind even an element? How do golden power, creation, darkness, and destruction fit into all of this? Can any four elements combine to form Creation (as in either Mega-Weapon or Tornado of Creation), or does it require the four "main" elements? What are your theories or opinions? Post them below! My theory is this: All elements can be used in Spinjitzu and Airjitzu, although Wind is rather redundant in both, though it is possible that Wind Spinjitzu/Airjitzu is more powerful than other elements, in terms of how much "Elemental power" there is. The ninjas' elements (minus Lloyd) are the main elements, and other elements are combinations of them. Light & Shadow (Used by the Elemental Masters) are distinct from Creation & Destruction, the supposed elements of Sensei Wu and the formerly evil Lord Garmadon, until he turned good. It is possible that Lord Garmadon was using Shadow in the pilot episodes when he did the whole Kai VS. Garmadon Fire Temple battle. And during that episode where Lord Garmadon is staying on the Destiny Bounty on the search for Lloyd, he appears to use a dark form of lightning at one point, which is obviously not a Shadow power, and therefore might be a Destruction power, especially when you see his Spinjitzu character card which depicts his element as being Destruction and showing him using dark lightning. Then we have Golden Power and Darkness/EVIL, the former being used by Lloyd until the events of Rebooted, and the latter being used by the Overlord. These could be the same as Creation and Destruction, though they appear to be much more powerful. My theory on the combinations is as follows: HIGH-POWER SUPER ELEMENTS Golden Power - Ultimate combination of all 4 main elements and possibly also Light. A rare higher-power form of Creation + Green Power/Energy - Used by Lloyd (during the Golden Ninja era) and First Spinjitzu Master.Darkness/EVIL - Probably a higher-power form of Destruction that is possibly a dark, unbalanced combination of the 4 main elements and possibly also Shadow. Used by the Overlord.LOWER-POWER SUPER ELEMENTS Creation - An equal balance of the 4 main elements. Low-power version of Golden Power. Used by Sensei Wu and Sensei Garmadon. Lloyd possibly uses a more powerful form of Creation, allowing him to fire balls of green energy from his hands and create things out of thin air (like the motorcycle he made in "The Titanium Ninja"), as well as transform existing vehicles (like the 4-wheeled vehicle in "Ninja Roll"). It is possible this is because Sensei Wu's Creation is the same level of power as the ninja of the 4 main elements, meaning he is not a master of any one element, and Lloyd's is equal to the full power of all 4 elements combined.Destruction - An out-of-balance combination of the 4 main elements. Used by evil Lord Garmadon and probably the Overlord. Possibly a low-power version of Darkness/EVIL.(?) Energy/Green Power - Lloyd's ability to shoot green balls of energy doesn't appear to be a power that Sensei Wu or Garmadon have, so it is possible that Lloyd's Creation element includes some sort of additional power allowing him to do this. This appears to be a lower-power version of the golden balls of energy in Golden Power. It could be its own element or just the offensive side of Lloyd's Creation element. PRIMARY ELEMENTS Fire - KaiIce - ZaneEarth - ColeLightning - JaySECONDARY ELEMENTS Sound - Jacob PevsnerSpeed - Griffin TurnerGravity - GravisMind - NeuroPoison - ToxMetal - KarlofWater - Nya, Lar (if canon)Smoke - AshNature - BoloboForm - ChamilleLight - PalemanShadow - ShadeAmber/Absorption - Skylor (now lost)Wind - Morro It can be really confusing to understand the elements involving light and darkness, good and evil. Light & Shadow are confirmed to be elements, though they are apparently different from the elements of Creation and Destruction, Sensei Wu using the former and Lord Garmadon using the latter. And then you have to throw in the Golden Ninja Lloyd's Golden Power, as well as the Overlord's Darkness/Evil power. Golden Power does not appear to be the same as Creation, and the same applies for Destruction and Darkness/Overlord Power. And then Lloyd's Green Power is there. At first I thought this was a separate element from Creation and possibly a weaker form of Golden Power, but I had forgotten about that scene in "The Titanium Ninja" where he creates a motorcycle out of thin air, which means that he does in fact use the element of Creation, albeit at a much higher power level than Sensei Wu, as he is able to create balls of energy to use as a weapon. So yeah, this is all very confusing. What do you think? What are your theories? Feel free to discuss them here!
So, I'm working on a research paper, and my teacher told us our topic can be "Physics of [anything you could possibly think of]." So, I chose Lego building, not picturing that pretty much every site I look up is about how to simulate physics theories with Lego bricks. I was wondering if you guys know anything about the physics of Lego I can borrow, and it would be very nice if I could get sources from it (although most of the sites will probably get blocked). Thank you.
I'm kinda sad to see S&T die down, and all those grand theory topics about the nature of the MU and such now vanished only into the memories of older members. So I figured I'd pick one of the great unanswered mysteries, see what evidence I could find concerning it, and see where that led me. (Kapura's as much of a mystery as ever, but I don't mind).What exactly protodermis is has been something no one is exactly sure of, because it's so irregular. Most people chalk it up to magic but I, being a science fiction fan, have decided to collate everything we know about protodermis, put into the context of normal science, and then see if anyone here who has a better knowledge of the interaction between real elements can help me figure out exactly what might match those known properties.To clarify, I'm referring to the GB-created stuff, not natural EP.Let's start with the basics. [*]Protodermis is a molecule, not an elemental atom. Evidence to this effect is the fact that the GBs invented protodermis instead of discovering it. (I vaguley remember something about a Greg quote, but until I see the exact wording of it I'm not going to bring that into this.)[*]Protodermis either bonds easily with other molecules or it can assimilate atoms into its molecular structure (as evidenced by its incredibly variant forms that it can take, along with references to "purifying" protodermis in Ga-Metru). I lean toward the first, as assimilation would make the molecule really no longer protodermis, and the process of breaking the molecule to reassemble pure protodermis would be incredibly difficult, even at the level of tech we saw in Metru Nui.[*]There is, in fact, one "true" (or "pure," so to speak) form of proto, because it's processed into pure proto in Ga-Metru.[*]It is very hard to oxidize. Mata Nui's Great Spirit body was seen to have made it through a thousand-year sleep without rusting, instead being covered in mud.Now, I think that we can extrapolate a few things about the pure and impure states of proto. [*]At least one form of impure protodermis has a very low melting point, as we have seen liquid protodermis in Ga-Metru, where (not coincidentally, I think) impure proto is gathered to be purified. It acts exactly like water, and Water Toa can influence it. I suspect that this means that the impure proto found in Ga-Metru is bonded with H2O molecules. I think this means that the frozen proto seen in Ko-Metru is impure as well.[*]Pure protodermis has a very high melting temperature, as evidenced by the lava-like protodermis that we can see in Ta-Metru. It has been stated that pure proto is what Ta-Metru processes to make disks and masks, and therefore it is likely that the stuff that is seen there is pure proto. BS01 suggests that this might actually be the plasma state of protodermis, but I have seen no evidence for that and it doesn't (to my knowledge) really act like plasma, so I disagree with that theory.[*]"Raw" protodermis, I suspect, is also impure protodermis, but bonded with something that has a melting point higher than that of liquid proto, such as dirt. This is because BS01 delineates between raw proto and pure proto, which implies that raw proto is impure. However, it doesn't imitate water like liquid proto does, and therefore is likely bonded to another molecule. Bonesiii said that he recalls something about raw being more impure than liquid proto. If this is, in fact, true, it seems likely that pure protodermis can bond together with solid materials more easily than with liquids, but not to the point of making it unlikely to see liquid proto.So, what's in a protodermis molecule? [*]Iron. We can say this for fairly certain because an Iron Toa can create and use solid protodermis, as well as natural wrought iron.[*]An unknown element with a high melting point. See my reasoning about molten protodermis for this.[*]An unknown factor which causes natural crystal lattices in protodermis. This is what results in lightstones and their close cousin, heatstones. This form of proto also seems to be very conducive to storing energy.It is possible that Iron is merely another element which is bonded to proto, but BS01 says that Iron Toa can maniulate pure proto. That being said, I'm willing to cede the point if I'm disproved.There are two other forms of protodermis that need to be addressed. One is protosteel, and the other is organic protodermis.Protosteel is likely a form of impure protodermis with a higher-than-normal amount of carbon and iron (and possibly other things like titanium), causing a much more resilient form of proto.Organic protodermis is fairly simple to explain: it's just organic cells built of of protodermis molecules instead of their real-world counterparts.Energized protodermis, being entirely divorced from normal protodermis, I have little idea about. Bonesiii suggests that the Great Beings failed to mimick an "energized" form of protodermis which gave them artificial proto instead of EP, and the modification of proto beings that EP seems capable of doing is simple the energy in EP being converted into extra mass to modify the subject.