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5G flip phones

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Jean Valjean


:kaukau: I said that I would wait until the next Big Thing before upgrading everything of mine wholesale to the Apple ecosystem. After asking a lot of people at Best Buy, I've decided that the thing I'll wait for will be the eventual 6G network. So basically, it will probably be around 2030 when I upgrade to Apple.


Also, I discovered that while 2G and 3G are being phased out of service in the next year or two, there are some 4G (and inevitably, 5G) flip phones. That's right, my father can still hold on to his dear Fliposaurus! And then I can wait until the 2030's before I get him a flagship smartphone. I want to put this off for as long as possible because a) nostalgia, I love those dinosaurs, too, and b) I want to contrast between generational technology upgrades to be as dramatic and surreal as possible. Hopefully it doesn't send him into shock.


In the meantime, my next upgrade will probably be the Galaxy Note 10 or 11, which I'll use for educational purposes until it dies on me. After that, I wouldn't mind going for the majority of the 2020's on a flip phone. It wouldn't have as many tools, but its shape and build is ideal to fit in my back pocket when I'm welding. Plus, there's something cool about being the stubborn person from yestergeneration refusing to conform.



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I have been curious on welding. How is it? While I would like to try it out to get a feeling of some Medieval employment, and how it can be like metallic carpentry, as an artist who values his vision and hand precision I don't really want to risk anything that would ruin those.

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:kaukau: Vision-wise, I would not cut corners on a high-end helmet.  You want to get one that has four sensors, and also side-visors.  Most workplaces don't require that you wear breathing equipment, but they will offer it if you ask for it.  Always ask for it.  Someone close to me had health problems come up because of ventilation issues.


There are several types of welding.  GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding), which feeds a wire from a stinger/gun (the terms are used interchangeably in this context).  The gun contains a trigger, a nozzle, and a contact tip.  The contact tip, made from copper, is inside of the nozzle, and it is wear the wire comes from.  When the wire touched it on the way out, this is what gives it its current, turning it into an electrode.  Along with the wire, the contact tip is also where the shielding gas is released.  You want the pressure of the shielding gas to be around 30 lb/in^2.  Much beyond that, and you'll get a Venturi effect.  The shielding gas prevents the oxygen in the atmosphere from reacting with the molten welding metal.  Oxygen is a highly reactive element, and it will cause the molten weld pool to bubble and pop, creating porosity.  This significantly weakens the weld.  Furthermore, when you have porosity, the trapped pockets of oxygen will react with future weld passes, so you cannot simply cover up the porous weld with another weld.  It must be ground out completely.


Speaking of grinding, you may be doing a lot of this.  In my experience, you are subject to more harmful noises than harmful lights.  So long as you wear your helmet, your vision will be pretty good.  I would be more concerned about your neck area, where the UV radiation can still get to and cause severe sunburn.  I highly recommend a neckerchief.


The advantages of GMAW is that you can set the machine to feed the wire at a steady rate, and it goes very quickly.  Because of its speed, you not only save time, but there is less overall heat input, meaning that there is less distortion in the materials.   Along with he higher deposition rates, more of the filler metal actually makes it into the weld.  However, the weld penetration is usually lower, the supplies are less portable.  The shielding gas is less reliable outdoors, where wind can interfere with it.


The other common form of welding is SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding), also known as stick welding.  This is far more useful outdoors.  While it lacks many of the advantages of GMAW (it's slower, does not have a constant speed, distorts more, leaves more leftover metal), it is more portable and impervious to outdoor conditions.  A GMAW welding setup includes a disposable electrode, a clamp-style stinger (not a gun), and a welding machine that is basically the same as an SMAW machine, minus the large spindle that feeds the wire electrode.  The electrode is a rod covered in a coating, usually of a mineral compound.  Imagine a long, metal corndog.  The very tip of the electrode will be exposed metal.  When an arc is struck by contacting the metal with the work surface, some of the mineral coating will evaporate and turn into shielding gas, and the rest will melt and turn into flux.  Because of the high surface tension of molten metal, the flux and the weld metal will not mix.  The flux is lighter than the weld metal, so it will be pushed to the surface, creating a protective coating called slag.  This acts as an additional protection from air contamination.  The flux also takes contaminants with it as it is pushed to the surface, such as spare oxygen molecules, purifying the weld metal.  Because the shielding gas is produced from the surface of the weld puddle itself, and because of the extra solid shielding, and its purifying properties, SMAW can be used in windy environments with minimum contamination.


There are a variety of flux types, and electrodes.  One of the more common electrodes will be the 7018 electrode.  It provides a very smooth welding surface, and little electrode manipulation.  However, it does create the deepest fusion, so it is not used for the most critical welds.  In critical welds, you will most likely use the 6010 electrode.  This has a less stable arc, and you cannot simply "lay in" the electrode.  Think of a paintbrush; you cannot simply draw what you want.  There's an element of chaos to it, but it's manageable.  It is also harder to strike off and create the necessary resistance for the arc, because the electrode is prone to sticking to the base material.  Its slag is harder to take off, and the weld trail leaves behind erratic ripples is not "woven" perfectly.  It requires greater coordination from the welder all-round.  However, if you can master the 6010 electrode, you can master most forms of welding.  It by far requires the most intuition from the welder.  Of all the welding electrodes, I consider this one to be the most natural fit for artistic people like you and me.


This is also the most toxic form of welding, so breathing equipment is non-negotiable.  Since it will take you a while to figure out how to start the electric arc between the electrode and the base, it will get messy, and the fusion at the beginning of the weld may be imperfect, creating structural compromise. While you are practicing, you will experience brief, intense flashes as you try to figure out the best amount of force in striking off, accompanied by the ideal level of constant voltage.  Your welding helmet might not be able to react in time to shield you from it.  To prevent this from becoming an issue, when you are striking off for the first time, do it on a practice piece while closing your eyes.  Your auto-darkening lens will suffer latency this first time, but after that it is calibrated.


As you use up the electrode, and you get closer to its base at the clamp, you will start feeling intense heat.  When there is about a half of an electrode left, you should stop welding and discard it.  Replace it with another, and continue welding.  Over time, your leather welding gloves will start getting crispy.  The seams will start pealing back, and the leather itself may warp.  If you are working with an employer, they will replace the welding gloves once they become warped beyond what you are comfortable using.


Otherwise, I have never actually damaged my hands while welding.  It always happened while handling heavy metal objects outside of the welding itself.  All injuries have been impact-related, and not burn-related.  I do not think that this should be a concern for you.


Another welding process that you would probably enjoy would be TIG (Tungsten Arc Welding).  In this process, the electrode and the filler wire are not the same.  In one hand, you hold the tungsten electrode, and in the other, you hold a rod of filler metal.  The tungsten electrode is non-disposable; it has a high melting point and cools off quickly.  It is kept in a little welding gun (which looks more like a stylus), cooled with an air-cooling or water-cooling system, and like GMAW, is surrounded by a contact tube and a nozzle that directs shielding gas.  The tungsten electrode never "strikes off" like the other weld materials, because it will contaminate the weld pool if it comes in contact.  Instead, it is held approximately a centimeter from the work, and a continuous arc is supplied when the current is initiated by the pushing of a pedal lever.  Think of it like a Tesla coil.  The arc has some pushing action, and it can help shape the weld to create something very beautiful.


In the other hand, you manually feed the filler rod into the arc, building up the weld puddle one drop at a time.  It is highly meticulous, and appealing to artistic types.  You have more control in this process than any other welding process; it is also fully manual, because there are no constant settings.  The weld deposition, voltage, resistance, and amperage are up to the welder.  The amperage is controlled by how much pressure it applied to the pedal.  You are micromanaging the weld with three limbs at once.


You can fuse as deeply as you like, make the weld look at beautiful as you like, and otherwise fine-tune a product to your liking.  However, it is also the slowest process.  It will create the most distortion.  It is also the hottest process, because of how close your hands are to the work.  The heat buildup is infamous and nicknamed "the welder's dilemma."  You will replace your gloves frequently.


While note often used outside, this process is considered a must for welding on medical equipment, or anything that relates to human health, such as food containment.  It is the cleanest system, by a significant margin, and doesn't necessarily require ventilation.  It is also the most beautiful.


A more primitive form of this process is Oxy-Acetylene Welding.  With this, there is no electrode.  It is replaced with an oxy-acetylene welding torch.  You must find the ideal balance between the two gases, and get the flame to an exact tip.  In most torch flames, there are two "cones" of fire, a smaller internal flame and a broader cone of flame surrounding it.  Adjust the flow so that the larger flame comes down to the exact size of the smaller flame.  After that, the process is exactly the same as in TIG.  You head up the metal with one hand, and deposit new metal with another.  This process will be the most similar to a Medieval smithing process that you're likely to come across.


While I would certainly express concern for your eyes, I would not worry about your hands as much.  Just make sure that you're always handling hot materials with vice pliers, and wearing gloves.  Processes like SMAW and TIG will greatly improve your dexterity.  Ultimately, I consider your hearing and lungs larger targets for health problems.


For you, I recommend experimenting with 6010 and SMAW.  These handle the most like art utensils.



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